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Author: Confucius (孔夫子); translated by James Legge

1. 子曰:「為政以德,譬如北辰,居其所而眾星共之。」

The Master said, He that rules by mind is like the north star, steady in his seat, whilst the stars all bend to him.

2. 子曰:「詩三百,一言以蔽之,曰:思無邪。」

The Master said, The three hundred poems are summed up in the one line, Think no evil.

3. 子曰:「道之以政,齊之以刑,民免而無恥;道之以德,齊之以禮,有恥且格。」

The Master said, Guide the people by law, aline them by punishment; they may shun crime, but they will want shame. Guide them by mind, aline them by courtesy; they will learn shame and grow good.

4. 子曰:「吾十有五而志于學,三十而立,四十而不惑,五十而知天命,六十而耳順,七 十而從心所欲,不踰矩。」

The Master said, At fifteen, I had the will to learn; at thirty, I could stand; at forty, I had no doubts; at fifty, I understood the heavenly Bidding; at sixty, my ears were opened; at seventy, I could do as my heart lusted without trespassing from the square.

5. 孟懿子問孝。子曰:「無違。」樊遲御,子告之曰:「孟孫問孝於我,我對曰,『無 違。』」樊遲曰:「何謂也?」子曰:「生,事之以禮;死,葬之以禮,祭之以禮。」

Meng Yi asked the duty of a son. The Master said, Not to transgress. As Fan Chi'ih was driving him, the Master said, Meng-sun asked me the duty of a son; I answered, Not to transgress. What did ye mean? said Fan Chi'ih. To serve our father and mother with courtesy whilst they live; to bury them with courtesy when they die, and to worship them with courtesy.

6. 孟武伯問孝。子曰:「父母唯其疾之憂。」

Meng Wu asked the duty of a son. The Master said, He should not grieve his father and mother by anything but illness.

7. 子游問孝。子曰:「今之孝者,是謂能養。至於犬馬,皆能有養;不敬,何以別乎。」

Tzu-yu asked the duty of a son. The Master said, He that can feed his parents is now called a good son. But both dogs and horses are fed, and unless we honour our parents, what is the difference?

8. 子夏問孝。子曰:「色難。有事,弟子服其勞;有酒食,先生饌,曾是以為孝乎?」

Tzu-hsia asked the duty of a son. The Master said, Our manner is the hard part. For the young to be a stay in toil and leave the wine and food to their elders, is this to fulfill their duty?

9. 子曰:「吾與回言終日,不違如愚。退而省其私,亦足以發,回也不愚。」

The Master said, If I talk all day to Hui, like a dullard, he never differs from me. But when he is gone, if I watch him when alone, he can carry out what I taught. No, Hui is no dullard!

10. 子曰:「視其所以,觀其所由,察其所安。人焉廋哉?人焉廋哉?」 The Master said, See what he does; watch what moves him; search what pleases him: can the man lie hidden? Can the man lie hidden?

11. 子曰:「溫故而知新,可以為師矣。」 The Master said, To keep old knowledge warm and get new makes the teacher.

12. 子曰:「君子不器。」

The Master said, A gentleman is not a vessel.

13. 子貢問君子。子曰:「先行其言,而後從之。」

Tzu-kung asked, What is a gentleman? The Master said, He puts words into deeds first, and follows these up with words.

14. 子曰:「君子周而不比,小人比而不周。」

The Master said, A gentleman is broad and fair; the small man takes sides and is narrow.

15. 子曰:「學而不思則罔,思而不學則殆。」

The Master said, Learning without thought is naught; thought without learning is dangerous.

16. 子曰:「攻乎異端,斯害也己。」

The Master said, To fight strange doctrines does harm.

17. 子曰:「由!誨女知之乎!知之為知之,不知為不知,是知也。」

The Master said, Yu, shall I teach thee what is wisdom? To know what we know, and know what we do not know, is wisdom.

18. 子張學干祿。子曰:「多聞闕疑,慎言其餘,則寡尤。多見闕殆,慎行其餘,則寡 悔。言寡尤,行寡悔,祿在其中矣。」

Tsu-chang learned with an eye to pay. The Master said, Hear much, leave all that is doubtful alone, speak warily of everything else, and few will be offended. See much, leave all that is dangerous alone, deal warily with everything else, and thou wilt have little to rue. If thy words seldom give offence, and thy deeds leave little to rue, pay will follow.

19. 哀公問曰:「何為則民服?」孔子對曰:「舉直錯諸枉,則民服;舉枉錯諸直,則民 不 服。」

Duke Ai asked, What should I do to win the people? Confucius answered, Lift up the straight, put away the crooked; and the people will be won. Lift up the crooked, put away the straight; and the people will not be won.

20. 季康子問:「使民敬忠以勸,如之何?」子曰:「臨之以莊則敬,孝慈則忠,舉善而 教不能則勸。」

Chi K'ang asked how to make the people lowly, faithful and painstaking. The Master said, Meet them with dignity, they will be lowly; be a good son and merciful, they will be faithful; lift up the good and teach the unskilled, and they will take pains.

21. 或謂孔子曰:「子奚不為政?」子曰:「書云:『孝乎惟孝,友于兄弟,施於有 政。』是亦為政,奚其為為政?」

One said to Confucius, Why do ye not govern, Sir? The Master said, What does the Book say of a good son? 'To be a good son and a friend to thy brothers is to show how to govern.' This, too, is to govern. Must one be in office to govern?

22. 子曰:「人而無信,不知其可也。大車無輗,小車無軏,其何以行之哉?」

The Master said, A man without truth, I know not what good he is! A cart without a crosspole, a carriage without a yoke, how can they be moved?

23. 子張問:「十世可知也?」子曰:「殷因於夏禮,所損益可知也;周因於殷禮,所損 益可知也。其或繼周者,雖百世,可知也。」

Tzu-chang asked whether we can know what is to be ten generations hence. The Master said, The Yin took over the manners of the Hsia; the harm and the good that they did them can be known. The Chou took over the manners of the Yin; the harm and the good that they did them can be known. And we may know what shall be, even an hundred generations hence, whoever follows Chou.

24. 子曰:「非其鬼而祭之,諂也。見義不為,無勇也。」

The Master said, To worship the ghosts of men not akin to us is fawning. To see the right and not do it is want of courage.

Confucian Analects Book IV [孔夫子論語: 里仁第四] (translated by James Legge)

1. 子曰:「里仁為美。擇不處仁,焉得知?」

The Master said, Love makes a spot beautiful: who chooses not to dwell in love, has he got wisdom?

2. 子曰:「不仁者,不可以久處約,不可以長處樂。仁者安仁,知者利仁。」

The Master said, Loveless men cannot bear need long, they cannot bear fortune long. Loving men find peace in love, the wise find profit in it.

3. 子曰:「惟仁者,能好人,能惡人。」

The Master said, Love alone can love others, or hate others.

4. 子曰:「苟志於仁矣,無惡也。」

The Master said, A will set on love is free from evil.

5. 子曰:「富與貴,是人之所欲也,不以其道得之,不處也。貧與賤,是人之惡也,不以 其道得之,不去也。君子去仁,惡乎成名。君子無終食之間違仁,造次必於是,顛沛必於是。」

The Master said, Wealth and honours are what men desire; but do not go from the Way, to keep them. Lowliness and want are hated by men; but do not go from the Way, to escape them. Shorn of love, is a gentleman worthy of the name? Not for one moment may a gentleman sin against love; he must not do so in flurry and haste, nor do so in utter overthrow.

6. 子曰:「我未見好仁者,惡不仁者。好仁者,無以尚之;惡不仁者,其為仁矣,不使不 仁者加乎其身。有能一日用其力於仁矣乎?我未見力不足者。蓋有之矣,我未之見也。」

The Master said, I have seen no one that loves love and hates uncharity. He that loves love will set nothing higher. The hater of uncharity is so given to love that no uncharity can enter into his life. If a man were to give his strength to love for one day, I have seen no one whose strength would fail him. There may be such men, but I have not seen one.

7. 子曰:「人之過也,各於其黨。觀過,斯知仁矣。」

The Master said, A man and his faults are of a piece. By watching his faults we learn whether love be his.

8. 子曰:「朝聞道,夕死可矣!」

The Master said, To learn the Way at daybreak and die at eve were enough.

9. 子曰:「士志於道,而恥惡衣惡食者,未足與議也!」

The Master said, A knight in quest of the Way, who is ashamed of bad clothes and bad food, it is idle talking to.

10. 子曰:「君子之於天下也,無適也,無莫也,義之於比。」

The Master said, A gentleman has no likes or dislikes below heaven. He follows right.

11. 子曰:「君子懷德,小人懷土;君子懷刑,小人懷惠。」

The Master said, The gentleman cherishes mind, the small man cherishes dirt. Gentlemen trust in the law, the small man trusts in favour.

12. 子曰:「放於利而行,多怨。」

The Master said, The chase of gain is rich in hate.

13. 子曰:「能以禮讓為國乎,何有!不能以禮讓為國,如禮何!」

The Master said, What is it to sway a kingdom by courteous yielding? If we cannot sway a kingdom by courteous yielding, what is our courtesy worth?

14. 子曰:「不患無位,患所以立;不患莫己知,求為可知也。」

The Master said, Care not for want of place; care for thy readiness to fill one. Care not for being unknown, but seek to be worthy of note.

15. 子曰:「參乎!吾道一以貫之。」曾子曰:「唯。」子出。門人問曰:「何謂也?」 曾子曰:「夫子之道,忠恕而已矣。」

The Master said, One line, Shen, runs through my Way. Yes, said Tseng-tzu. After the Master had left, the disciples asked what was meant. Tseng-tzu said, The Master's Way is no more than faithfulness and fellow-feeling.

16. 子曰:「君子喻於義,小人喻於利。」

The Master said, The gentleman is learned in right; the small man is learned in gain.

17. 子曰:「見賢思齊焉,見不賢而內自省也。」

The Master said, At sight of worth, think to grow like it; at sight of baseness, search thyself within.

18. 子曰:「事父母幾諫,見志不從,又敬不違,勞而不怨。」

The Master said, A father or a mother may be gently chidden. If thou seest they have no will to follow thee, be the more lowly, but do not give way; nor murmur at the trouble they give thee.

19. 子曰:「父母在,不遠遊,遊必有方。」

The Master said, Whilst thy father and mother are living, do not wander afar. If thou must travel, hold a set course.

20. 子曰:「三年無改於父之道,可謂孝矣。」

The Master said, He that changes nothing in his father's ways for three years may be called pious.

21. 子曰:「父母之年,不可不知也:一則以喜,一則以懼。」

The Master said, A father and mother's years must be borne in mind; with gladness on the one hand and fear on the other.

22. 子曰:「古者言之不出,恥躬之不逮也。」

The Master said, The men of old were loth to speak, for not to live up to their words would have shamed them.

23. 子曰:「以約失之者,鮮矣。」

The Master said, We shall seldom get lost if we hold to main lines.

24. 子曰:「君子欲訥於言,而敏於行。」

The Master said, A gentleman wishes to be slow to speak and quick to do.

25. 子曰:「德不孤,必有鄰。」

The Master said, A great soul is never friendless: he has always neighbours.

26. 子游曰:「事君數,斯辱矣;朋友數,斯疏矣。」

Tzu-yu said, Nagging at kings brings disgrace, nagging at friends estrangement.

Author: Confucius (孔夫子); translated by James Legge

The Master said, He that does not know the Bidding cannot be a gentleman. Not to know good form is to have no foothold. Not to know words is to know nothing of men.



1. 堯曰:「咨!爾舜!天之歷數在爾躬,允執其中!四海困窮,天祿永終。」舜亦以命 禹。曰:「予小子履,敢用玄牡,敢昭告于皇皇后帝,有罪不敢赦,帝臣不蔽,簡在帝心!朕躬有罪,無以萬方;萬方有罪,罪在朕躬。」「周有大賚,善人是富。」「雖有周親,不如仁人;百姓有過,在予一人。謹權量,審法度,修廢官,四方之政行焉。興滅國,繼絕世,舉逸民,天下之民歸心焉。所重民,食喪祭。寬則得眾,信則民任焉。敏則有功,公則說。」

Yao said, Hail to thee, Shun! The count that Heaven is telling falls on thee. Keep true hold of the centre. If there be stress or want within the four seas, the gift of Heaven will pass for ever. Shun laid the same commands on Yü. T'ang said, I, Thy little child Li, dare to offer this black steer, and dare to proclaim before Thee, Almighty Lord, that I dare not forgive sin, nor keep down Thy ministers. Search them, O Lord, in Thine heart. If Our life be sinful, visit it not upon the ten thousand homesteads. If the ten thousand homesteads sin, the sin is on Our head. Chou bestowed great gifts, and good men grew rich. 'Loving hearts are better than near kinsmen. All the people blame no one but me.' He saw to weights and measures, revised the laws, and brought back broken officers. Order reigned everywhere. He revived ruined kingdoms and restored fiefs that had fallen in. All hearts below heaven turned to him. The people's food, burials and worship weighed most with him. His bounty gained the many, his truth won the people's trust, his earnestness brought success, his justice made men glad.

2. 子張問於孔子曰:「何如斯可以從政矣?」子曰:「尊五美,屏四惡,斯可以從政 矣。」子張曰:「何謂五美?」子曰:「君子惠而不費,勞而不怨,欲而不貪,泰而不驕;威而不猛。」子張曰:「何謂惠而不費?」子曰:「因民之所利而利之,斯不亦惠而不費乎?擇可勞而勞之,又誰怨!欲仁而得仁,又焉貪!君子無眾寡,無小大,無敢慢,斯不亦泰而不驕乎!君子正其衣冠,尊其瞻視,儼然人望而畏之,斯不亦威而不猛乎!」子張曰:「何謂四惡?」子曰:「不教而殺謂之虐,不戒視成謂之暴,慢令致期謂之賊,猶之與人也,出納之吝,謂之有司。」

Tzu-chang asked Confucius, How should men be governed? The Master said, To govern men we must honour five fair things and spurn four evil things. Tzu-chang said, What are the five fair things? The Master said, A gentleman is kind, but not wasteful; he burdens, but he does not embitter; he is covetous, but not greedy; high-minded, but not proud; stern, but not fierce. Tzu-chang said, What is meant by kindness without waste? The Master said, To further what furthers the people, is not that kindness without waste? If burdens be sorted to strength, who will grumble? To covet love and get love, is that greed? Few or many, small or great, all is one to a gentleman: he dares not slight any man. Is not this to be high-minded, but not proud? A gentleman straightens his robe and cap, and settles his look. He is severe, and men look up to him with awe. Is not this to be stern, but not fierce? Tzu-chang said, What are the four evil things? The Master said, To leave untaught and then kill is cruelty; not to give warning and to expect things to be done is tyranny; to give careless orders and be strict when the day comes is robbery; to be stingy in rewarding men is littleness.

3. 子曰:「不知命,無以為君子也。不知禮,無以立也。不知言,無以知人也。」

The Master said, He that does not know the Bidding cannot be a gentleman. Not to know good form is to have no foothold. Not to know words is to know nothing of men.

Author: Confucius (孔夫子); translated by James Legge

Confucius said, to live seclusive and search thy will; to achieve thy Way, by doing right: I have heard these words, but I have seen no such men..



11. 孔子曰:「見善如不及,見不善而探湯,吾見其人矣,吾聞其語矣!隱居以求其志, 行義以達其道,吾聞其語矣,未見其人也!」

Confucius said, In sight of good to be filled with longing; to look on evil as scalding to the touch: I have seen such men, I have heard such words. To live apart and search thy will; to achieve thy Way, by doing right: I have heard these words, but I have seen no such men.

12. 「齊景公有馬千駟,死之日,民無德而稱焉。伯夷、叔齊餓於首陽之下,民到于今 稱之,其斯之謂與?」 Ching, Duke of Ch'i, had a thousand teams of horses; but the people, on his death day, found no good in him to praise. Po-yi and Shu-ch'I starved at the foot of Shou-yang, and to this day the people still praise them. Is not this the clue to that?

13. 陳亢問於伯魚曰:「子亦有異聞乎?」對曰:「未也。嘗獨立,鯉趨而過庭。曰: 『學詩乎?』對曰:『未也。』『不學詩,無以言。』鯉退而學詩。他日,又獨立,鯉趨而過庭。曰:『學禮乎?』對曰:『未也。』『不學禮,無以立。』鯉退而學禮。聞斯二者。」陳亢退而喜曰:「問一得三,聞詩、聞禮,又聞君子之遠其子也。」

Ch'en K'ang asked Po-yü, Apart from us, have ye heard anything, Sir? He answered, No: once as my father stood alone and I sped across the hall, he said to me, Art thou learning poetry? I answered, No. He that does not learn poetry, he said, has no hold on words. I withdrew and learned poetry. Another day, when he again stood alone and I sped across the hall, he said to me, Art thou learning courtesy? I answered, No. He that does not learn courtesy, he said, has no foothold. I withdrew and learned courtesy. These two things I have heard. Ch'en K'ang withdrew, and cried gladly, I asked one thing, and I get three! I hear of poetry; I hear of courtesy; and I hear too that a gentleman stands aloof from his son.

14. 邦君子之妻,君稱之曰夫人,夫人自稱曰小童,邦人稱之曰君夫人,稱諸異邦曰寡 小君,異邦人稱之亦曰君夫人。 A king speaks of his wife as 'my wife.' She calls herself 'handmaid.' Her subjects speak of her as 'our lord's wife,' but when they speak to foreigners, they say 'our little queen.' Foreigners speak of her, too, as 'the lord's wife.'

Author: Confucius (孔夫子); translated by James Legge

Confucius said, A gentleman has nine aims. To see clearly; to understand what he hears; to be warm in manner, dignified in bearing, faithful of speech, keen at work; to ask when in doubt; in anger to think of difficulties; and in sight of gain to think of right.



6. 孔子曰:「侍於君子有三愆。言未及之而言謂之躁,言及之而不言謂之隱,未見顏色 而言謂之瞽。」

Confucius said. Men that wait upon lords fall into three mistakes. To speak before the time has come is rashness. Not to speak when the time has come is secrecy. To speak heedless of looks is blindness.

7. 孔子曰:「君子有三戒。少之時,血氣未定,戒之在色;及其壯也,血氣方剛,戒之 在鬥;及其老也,血氣既衰,戒之在得。」

Confucius said, A gentleman has three things to guard against. In the days of thy youth, ere thy strength is steady, beware of lust. When manhood is reached, in the fulness of strength, beware of strife. In old age, when thy strength is broken, beware of greed.

8. 孔子曰:「君子有三畏:畏天命,畏大人,畏聖人之言。小人不知天命而不畏也,狎 大人,侮聖人之言。」

Confucius said, A gentleman holds three things in awe. He is in awe of the Bidding of Heaven; he is in awe of great men; and he is awed by the words of the holy. The small man knows not the Bidding of Heaven, and holds it not in awe. He is saucy towards the great; he makes game of holy men's words.

9. 孔子曰:「生而知之者,上也;學而知之者,次也;困而學之,又其次也。困而不學 ,民斯為下矣!」

Confucius said, The best men are born wise. Next come those that grow wise by learning; then those that learn from toil. Those that do not learn from toil are the lowest of the people.

10. 孔子曰:「君子有九思:視思明,聽思聰,色思溫,貌思恭,言思忠,事思敬,疑 思問,忿思難,見得思義。」

Confucius said, A gentleman has nine aims. To see clearly; to understand what he hears; to be warm in manner, dignified in bearing, faithful of speech, keen at work; to ask when in doubt; in anger to think of difficulties; and in sight of gain to think of right.

Author: Confucius (孔夫子); translated by James Legge

1. 孔子謂季氏,「八佾舞於庭,是可忍也,孰不可忍也?」

Of the Chi having eight rows of dancers in his courtyard, Confucius said, If this is to be borne, what is not to be borne?

2. 三家者以雍徹。子曰:「『相維辟公,天子穆穆』,奚取於三家之堂?」

When the sacrifice was ended, the Three Clans had the Yung hymn sung. The Master said, Princes and dukes assist. Solemn is the Son of heaven; what meaning has this in the courtyard of the Three Clans?

3. 子曰:「人而不仁,如禮何?人而不仁,如樂何?」

The Master said, A man without love, what is courtesy to him? A man without love, what is music to him?

4. 林放問禮之本。子曰:「大哉問!禮,與其奢也,寧儉;喪,與其易也,寧戚。」

Lin Fang asked what good form is at root. The Master said, A big question! At high-tides, thrift is better than waste; at burials, grief is worth more than nicety.

5. 子曰:「夷狄之有君,不如諸夏之亡也。」

The Master said, Every wild tribe has its lord, whereas the lands of Hsia have none!

6. 季氏旅於泰山,子謂冉有曰:「女弗能救與?」對曰:「不能。」子曰:「嗚呼!曾謂 泰山不如林放乎?」

The Chi sacrificed to Mount T'ai. The Master said to Jan Yu, Canst thou not stop this? He answered, I cannot. Alas! said the Master; dost thou think Mount T'ai less wise than Lin Fang?

7. 子曰:「君子無所爭,必也射乎!揖讓而升,下而飲。其爭也君子。」

The Master said, A gentleman never strives with others. Or must he, perhaps, in shooting? But then, as he bows and makes way in going up or steps down to drink, his strife is that of a gentleman.

8. 子夏問曰:「巧笑倩兮,美目盼兮,素以為絢兮。何謂也?」子曰:「繪事後素。」 曰:「禮後乎?」子曰:「起予者商也!始可與言詩矣。」

Tzu-hsia asked, What is the meaning of: Her cunning smiles, Her dimples light, Her lovely eyes, So clear and bright, All unadorned, The background white. Colouring, said the Master, is second to the plain ground. Then good form is second, said Tzu-hsia. Shang, said the Master, thou hast hit my meaning! Now I can talk of poetry to thee.

9. 子曰:「夏禮,吾能言之,杞不足徵也;殷禮,吾能言之,宋不足徵也。文獻不足故 也。足,則吾能徵之矣。」

The Master said, I can speak of the manners of Hsia; but as proof of them Chi is not enough. I can speak of the manners of Yin; but as proof of them Sung is not enough. This is due to their dearth of books and great men. If there were enough of these, I could use them as proofs.

10. 子曰:「禘自既灌而往者,吾不欲觀之矣。」

The Master said, After the drink offering at the Great Sacrifice, I have no wish to see more.

11. 或問禘之說。子曰:「不知也。知其說者之於天下也,其如示諸斯乎!」指其掌。

One asked the meaning of the Great Sacrifice. The Master said, I do not know. He that knew the meaning would overlook all below heaven as I do this—and he pointed to his palm.

12. 祭如在,祭神如神在。子曰:「吾不與祭,如不祭。」

He worshipped as if those whom he worshipped were before him; he worshipped the spirits as if they were before him. The Master said: For me, to take no part in the sacrifice is the same as not sacrificing.

13. 王孫賈問曰:「與其媚於奧,寧媚於灶,何謂也?」子曰:「不然,獲罪於天,吾所 禱也。」

Wang-sun Chia said, What is the meaning of, It is better to court the hearth-god than the god of the home? Not so, said the Master. A sin against Heaven leaves no room for prayer.

14. 子曰:「周監於二代,郁郁乎文哉!吾從周。」

The Master said, Chou looks back on two lines of kings. How rich, how rich it is in art! I follow Chou.

15. 子入太廟,每事問。或曰:「孰謂鄹人之子知禮乎?入太廟,每事問。」子聞之, 曰:「是禮也。」

On going into the Great Temple the Master asked about everything. One said, Who says that the Tsou man's son knows the rites? On going into the Great Temple he asked about everything. When he heard this, the Master said, Such is the rite.

16. 子曰:「射不主皮,為力不同科,古之道也。」

The Master said, In shooting, the arrow need not go right through the target, for men are not the same in strength. This was the old rule.

17. 子貢欲去告朔之餼羊。子曰:「賜也!爾愛其羊,我愛其禮。」

Tzu-kung wished to do away with the sheep offering at the new moon. The Master said, Thou lovest the sheep, Tz'u: I love the rite.

18. 子曰:「事君盡禮,人以為諂也。」

The Master said: Serve the king with all courtesy, men call it fawning.

19. 定公問:「君使臣,臣事君,如之何?」孔子對曰:「君使臣以禮,臣事君以忠。」

Duke Ting asked how a lord should treat his lieges, and how lieges should serve their lord. Confucius answered, The lord should treat his lieges with courtesy; lieges should serve their lord faithfully.

20. 子曰:「關睢,樂而不淫,哀而不傷。」

The Master said, The poem The Osprey is glad, but not wanton; it is sad, but not morbid.

21. 哀公問社於宰我。宰我對曰:「夏后氏以松,殷人以柏,周人以栗,曰,使民戰 栗。」子聞之,曰:「成事不說,遂事不諫,既往不咎。」

Duke Ai asked Tsai Wo about the earth-altars. Tsai Wo answered, The Emperors of the house of Hsia grew firs round them; the men of Yin grew cypress; the men of Chou grew chestnut, which was to say, Let the people tremble. On hearing this, the Master said, I do not speak of what is ended, chide what is settled, or find fault with what is past.

22. 子曰:「管仲之器小哉。」或曰:「管仲儉乎?」曰:「管氏有三歸,官事不攝, 焉得儉?然則管仲知禮乎?」曰:「邦君樹塞門,管氏亦樹塞門。邦君為兩君之好,有反坫,管氏亦有反坫。管氏而知禮,孰不知禮?」

The Master said, How shallow was Kuan Chung! But, said one, was not Kuan Chung thrifty? The Kuan, said the Master, owned San Kuei, and no one of his household held two posts: was that thrift? At least Kuan Chung knew good form. The Master said, Kings screen their gates with trees; the Kuan, too, had trees to screen his gate. When two kings are carousing, they have a stand for the turned-down cups; the Kuan had a turned-down cup-stand, too! If the Kuan knew good form, who does not know good form?

23. 子語魯大師樂,曰:「樂其可知也:始作,翕如也;從之,純如也,皦如也,繹如 也,以成。」

The Master said to the Great Master of Lu, We can learn how to play music; at first each part in unison; then a swell of harmony, each part distinct, rolling on to the finish.

24. 儀封人請見,曰:「君子之至於斯也,吾未嘗不得見也。」從者見之。出曰:「二三 子何患於喪乎?天下之無道也久矣,天將以夫子為木鐸。」

The warden of Yi asked to see Confucius, saying, No gentleman has ever come here whom I have failed to see. The followers took him in. On leaving he said, My two-three boys, why lament your fall? The Way has long been lost below heaven! Now Heaven shall make the Master into a warning bell.

25. 子謂韶,「盡美矣,又盡善也。」謂武,「盡美矣,未盡善也。」 The Master said of the music of Shao, It is thoroughly beautiful, and thoroughly good, too. Of the music of Wu, he said, It is thoroughly beautiful, but not thoroughly good.

26. 子曰:「居上不寬,為禮不敬,臨喪不哀,吾何以觀之哉?」 The Master said, Rank without beauty; ceremony without reverence; mourning without grief, why should I cast them a glance?