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Author: Confucius (孔夫子); translated by James Legge

The Master said, Love is to conquer self and turn to courtesy. If we could conquer self and turn to courtesy for one day, all below heaven would turn to love. Does love flow from within, or does it flow from others?



1. 顏淵問仁。子曰:「克己復禮,為仁。一日克己復禮,天下歸仁焉。為仁由己,而由 仁乎哉?」顏淵曰:「請問其目?」子曰:「非禮勿視,非禮勿聽,非禮勿言,非禮勿動。」顏 淵曰:「回雖不敏,請事斯語矣!」

Yen Yüan asked, What is love? The Master said, Love is to conquer self and turn to courtesy. If we could conquer self and turn to courtesy for one day, all below heaven would turn to love. Does love flow from within, or does it flow from others? Yen Yüan said, May I ask what are its signs? The Master said, To be always courteous of eye and courteous of ear; to be always courteous in word and courteous in deed. Yen Yüan said, Though I am not clever, I hope to live by these words.

2. 仲弓問仁。子曰:「出門如見大賓,使民如承大祭。己所不欲,勿施於人。在邦無怨 ,在家無怨。」仲弓曰:「雍雖不敏,請事斯語。」

Chung-kung asked, What is love? The Master said, Without the door to behave as though a great guest were come; to treat the people as though we tendered the great sacrifice; not to do unto others what we would not they should do unto us; to breed no wrongs in the state and breed no wrongs in the home. Chung-kung said, Though I am not clever, I hope to live by these words.

3. 司馬牛問仁。子曰:「仁者,其言也訒。」曰:「斯言也訒,斯謂之仁矣乎?」子 曰:「為之難,言之得無訒乎?」

Ssu-ma Niu asked, What is love? The Master said, Love is slow to speak. To be slow to speak! Can that be called love? The Master said, Can that which is hard to do be lightly spoken?

4. 司馬牛問君子。子曰:「君子不憂不懼。」曰:「不憂不懼,斯謂之君子矣乎?」子 曰:「內省不疚,夫何憂何懼?」

Ssu-ma Niu asked, What is a gentleman? The Master said, A gentleman knows neither sorrow nor fear. No sorrow and no fear! Can that be called a gentleman? The Master said. He searches his heart: it is blameless; so why should he sorrow, what should he fear?

5. 司馬牛憂曰:「人皆有兄弟,我獨亡!」子夏曰:「商聞之矣:『死生有命,富貴在 天』。君子敬而無失,與人恭而有禮;四海之內,皆兄弟也。君子何患乎無兄弟也?」

Ssu-ma Niu cried sadly, All men have brothers, I alone have none! Tzu-hsia said, I have heard that life and death are allotted, that wealth and honours are in Heaven's hand. A gentleman is careful and does not trip; he is humble towards others and courteous. All within the four seas are brethren; how can a gentleman lament that he has none?

6. 子張問「明」。子曰:「浸潤之譖,膚受之愬,不行焉,可謂明也已矣。浸潤之譖, 膚受之愬,不行焉,可謂遠也已矣。」 Tzu-chang asked, What is insight? The Master said, Not to be moved by lap and wash of slander, or by plaints that pierce to the quick, may be called insight. Yea, whom lap and wash of slander, or plaints that pierce to the quick cannot move may be called far-sighted.

7. 子貢問「政」。子曰:「足食,足兵,民信之矣。」子貢曰:「必不得已而去,於斯 三者何先?」曰:「去兵。」子貢曰:「必不得已而去,於斯二者何先?」曰:「去食。自古皆有死,民無信不立。」

Tzu-kung asked, What is kingcraft? The Master said, Food enough, troops enough, and the trust of the people. Tzu-kung said, If it had to be done, which could best be spared of the three? Troops, said the Master. And if we had to, which could better be spared of the other two? Food, said the Master. From of old all men die, but without trust a people cannot stand.

8. 棘子成曰:「君子質而已矣,何以文為?」子貢曰:「惜乎,夫子之說君子也,駟不 及舌!文猶質也,質猶文也;虎豹之鞹,猶犬羊之鞹。」 Chi Tzu-ch'eng said, It is the stuff alone that makes a gentleman; what can art do for him? Alas! my lord, said Tzu-kung, how ye speak of a gentleman! No team overtakes the tongue! The art is no less than the stuff, the stuff is no less than the art. Without the fur, a tiger or a leopard's hide is no better than the hide of a dog or a goat.

9. 哀公問於有若曰:「年饑,用不足,如之何?」有若對曰:「盍徹乎!」曰:「二, 吾猶不足,如之何其徹也?」對曰:「百姓足,君孰與不足?百姓不足,君孰與足?」

Duke Ai said to Yu Jo, In this year of dearth I have not enough for my wants; what should be done? Ye might tithe the people, answered Yu Jo. A fifth is not enough, said the Duke, how could I do with a tenth? When all his folk have enough, answered Yu Jo, shall the lord alone not have enough? When none of his folk have enough, shall the lord alone have enough?

10. 子張問「崇德,辨惑。」子曰:「主忠信,徒義崇德也。愛之欲其生,惡之欲其死; 既欲其生,又欲其死,是惑也!」誠不以富,亦祗以異。 Tzu-chang asked how to raise the mind and scatter delusions. The Master said, Put faithfulness and truth first, and follow the right; the mind will be raised. We wish life to what we love and death to what we hate. To wish it both life and death is a delusion. Whether prompted by wealth, or not,Yet ye made a distinction.

11. 齊景公問政於孔子。孔子對曰:「君君,臣臣,父父,子子。」公曰:「善哉!信如 君不君,臣不臣,父不父,子不子,雖有粟,吾得而食諸?」

Ching, Duke of Ch'i, asked Confucius, What is kingcraft? Confucius answered. For the lord to be lord and the liege, liege, the father to be father and the son, son. True indeed! said the Duke. If the lord were no lord and the liege no liege, the father no father and the son no son, though the grain were there, could I get anything to eat?

12. 子曰:「片言可以折獄者,其由也與!」子路無宿諾。

The Master said, To stint a quarrel with half a word Yu is the man. Tzu-lu never slept over a promise.

13. 子曰:「聽訟,吾猶人也,必也使無訟乎!」

The Master said, At hearing lawsuits I am no better than others. What is needed is to stop lawsuits.

14. 子張問「政」。子曰:「居之無倦,行之以忠。」

Tzu-chang asked, What is kingcraft? The Master said, To be tireless of thought and faithful in doing.

15. 子曰:「博學於文,約之以禮,亦可以弗畔矣夫。」

The Master said, Breadth of reading and the ties of courtesy will keep us, too, from false paths.

Author: Confucius (孔夫子); translated by James Legge

The Master said, Commend a man for plain speaking: he may prove a gentleman, or else but seeming honest.

16. 季氏富於周公,而求也為之聚斂而附益之。子曰:「非吾徒也,小子鳴鼓而攻之可也 !」

The Chi was richer than the Duke of Chou; yet Ch'iu became his tax-gatherer and made him still richer. He is no disciple of mine, said the Master. My little children, ye may beat your drums and make war on him.

17. 柴也愚,參也魯,師也辟,由也喭。

Ch'ai is simple, Shen is dull, Shih is smooth, Yu is coarse.

18. 子曰:「回也其庶乎!屢空,賜不受命,而貨殖焉;億則屢中。」

The Master said, Hui is almost faultless, and he is often empty. Tz'u will not bow to the Bidding, and he heaps up riches; but his views are often sound.

19. 子張問善人之道。子曰:「不踐跡,亦不入於室。」

Tzu-chang asked, What is the way of a good man? The Master said, He does not tread the beaten track; and yet he does not enter the inner rooms.


The Master said, Commend a man for plain speaking: he may prove a gentleman, or else but seeming honest.

21. 子路問:「聞斯行諸?」子曰:「有父兄在,如之何其聞斯行之!」冉有問:「聞斯 行諸?」子曰:「聞斯行之!」公西華曰:「由也問『聞斯行諸?』,子曰:『有父兄在』;求也問,『聞斯行諸?』子曰:『聞斯行之』。赤也惑,敢問?」子曰:「求也退,故進之;由也兼人,故退之。」

Tzu-lu said, Shall I do all I am taught? The Master said, Whilst thy father and elder brothers live, how canst thou do all thou art taught? Jan Yu asked, Shall I do all I am taught? The Master said, Do all thou art taught. Kung-hsi Hua said, Yu asked, Shall I do all I am taught? and ye said, Sir, Whilst thy father and elder brothers live. Ch'iu asked, Shall I do all I am taught? and ye said, Sir, Do all thou art taught. I am in doubt, and dare to ask you, Sir. The Master said, Ch'iu is bashful, so I egged him on; Yu is twice a man, so I held him back.

22. 子畏於匡,顏淵後。子曰:「吾以女為死矣!」曰:「子在,回何敢死!」

When the Master was in fear in K'uang, Yen Yüan fell behind. The Master said, I held thee for dead. He answered, Whilst my Master lives how should I dare to die?

23. 季子然問:「仲由、冉求,可謂大臣與?」子曰:「吾以子為異之問,曾由與求之問 。所謂大臣者,以道事君,不可則止;今由與求也,可謂具臣矣。」曰:「然則從之者與?」子曰:「弒父與君,亦不從也。」

Chi Tzu-jan asked whether Chung Yu or Jan Ch'iu could be called a great minister. The Master said, I thought ye would ask me a riddle, Sir, and ye ask about Yu and Ch'iu. He that holds to the Way in serving his lord and leaves when he cannot do so, we call a great minister. Now Yu and Ch'iu I should call tools. Who are just followers then? Nor would they follow, said the Master, if told to kill their lord or father.

24. 子路使子羔為費宰。子曰:「賊夫人之子!」子路曰:「有民人焉,有社稷焉,何必 讀書,然後為學?」子曰:「是故惡夫佞者。」

Tzu-lu made Tzu-kao governor of Pi. The Master said, Thou art undoing a man's son. Tzu-lu said, What with the people and the spirits of earth and corn, must a man read books to become learned? The Master said, This is why I hate a glib tongue.

25. 子路、曾皙、冉有、公西華侍坐。子曰:「以吾一日長乎爾,毋吾以也。居則曰:「 不吾知也!」如或知爾,則何以哉?」子路率爾而對曰:「千乘之國,攝乎大國之間,加之以師旅,因之以饑饉,由也為之,比及三年,可使有勇,且知方也。」夫子哂之。「求,爾何如?」對曰:「方六七十,如五六十,求也為之,比及三年,可使足民;如其禮樂,以俟君子。」「赤,爾何如?」對曰:「非曰能之,願學焉!宗廟之事,如會同,端章甫,願為小相焉。」「點,爾何如?」鼓瑟希,鏗爾,舍瑟而作。對曰:「異乎三子者之撰。」子曰:「何傷乎?亦各言其志也。」曰:「莫春者,春服既成;冠者五六人,童子六七人,浴乎沂,風乎舞雩,詠而歸。」夫子喟然嘆曰:「吾與點也!」三子者出,曾皙後。曾皙曰:「夫三子者之言何如?」子曰:「亦各言其志也已矣!」曰:「夫子何哂由也?」曰:「為國以禮,其言不讓,是故哂之。」「唯求則非邦也與?」「安見方六七十,如五六十,而非邦也者。」「唯赤,非邦也與?」「宗廟會同,非諸侯而何?赤也為之小,孰能為之大!」

The Master said to Tzu-lu, Tseng Hsi, Jan Yu and Kung-hsi Hua as they sat beside him, I may be a day older than you, but forget that. Ye are wont to say, I am unknown. Well, if ye were known, what would ye do? Tzu-lu answered lightly. Give me a land of a thousand chariots, crushed between great neighbours, overrun by soldiers and searched by famine, and within three years I could put courage into it and high purpose. The Master smiled. What wouldst thou do, Ch'iu? he said. He answered, Give me a land of sixty or seventy, or fifty or sixty square miles, and within three years I could give the people plenty. As for courtesy and music, they would wait the coming of a gentleman. And what wouldst thou do, Ch'ih? He answered, I do not speak of what I can do, but of what I should like to learn. At services in the Ancestral Temple, or at the Grand Audience, I should like to fill a small part. And what wouldst thou do, Tien? Tien stopped playing, pushed his still sounding lute aside, rose and answered, My choice would be unlike those of the other three. What harm in that? said the Master. Each but spake his mind. In the last days of spring, all clad for the springtime, with five or six young men and six or seven lads, I would bathe in the Yi, be fanned by the wind in the Rain God's glade, and go back home singing. The Master said with a sigh, I side with Tien. Tseng Hsi stayed after the other three had left, and said, What did ye think, Sir, of what the three disciples said? Each but spake his mind, said the Master. Why did ye smile at Yu, Sir? Lands are swayed by courtesy, but what he said was not modest. That was why I smiled. Yet did not Ch'iu speak of a state? Where would sixty or seventy, or fifty or sixty, square miles be found that are not a state? And did not Ch'ih too speak of a state? Who but great vassals are there in the Ancestral Temple, or at the Grand Audience? But if Ch'ih were to take a small part, who could fill a big one?

Author: Confucius (孔夫子); translated by James Legge

Chi-lu asked what is due to the ghosts of the dead? The Master said, When we cannot do our duty to the living, how can we do it to the dead? He dared to ask about death. We know not life, said the Master, how can we know death?



1. 子曰:「先進於禮樂,野人也;後進於禮樂,君子也。如用之,則吾從先進。」

The Master said, Savages! the men that first went into courtesy and music! Gentlemen! those that went into them later! My use is to follow the first lead in both.

2. 子曰:「從我於陳蔡者,皆不及門也。」德行:顏淵、閔子騫、冉伯牛、仲弓;言語: 宰我、子貢;政事:冉有、季路;文學:子游、子夏。

The Master said, Not one of my followers in Ch'en or Ts'ai comes any more to my door! Yen Yüan, Min Tzu-ch'ien, Jan Po-niu and Chung-kung were men of noble life; Tsai Wo and Tzu-kung were the talkers; Jan Yu and Chi-lu were statesmen; Tzu-yu and Tzu-hsia, men of arts and learning.

3. 子曰:「回也,非助我者也!於吾言,無所不說。」

The Master said, I get no help from Hui. No word I say but delights him!

4. 子曰:「孝哉閔子騫,人不間於其父母昆弟之言。」

The Master said, How good a son is Min Tzu-ch'ien! No one finds fault with anything that his father, or his mother, or his brethren say of him.

5. 南容三復白圭,孔子以其兄之子妻之。

Nan Jung would thrice repeat The Sceptre White. Confucius gave him his brother's daughter for wife.

6. 季康子問:「弟子孰為好學?」孔子對曰:「有顏回者好學,不幸短命死矣!今也則 亡。」

Chi K'ang asked which disciples loved learning. Confucius answered, There was Yen Hui loved learning. Alas! his mission was short, he died. Now there is no one.

7. 顏淵死,顏路請子之車以為之 。子曰:「才不才,亦各言其子也。鯉也死,有棺而無 ;吾不徒行,以為之 ,以吾從大夫之後,不可徒行也。」

When Yen Yüan died, Yen Lu asked for the Master's carriage to furnish an outer coffin. The Master said, Brains or no brains, each of us speaks of his son. When Li died he had an inner but not an outer coffin: I would not go on foot to furnish an outer coffin. As I follow in the wake of the ministers I cannot go on foot.

8. 顏淵死,子曰:「噫!天喪予!天喪予!」

When Yen Yüan died the Master said, Woe is me! Heaven has undone me! Heaven has undone me!

9. 顏淵死,子哭之慟。從者曰:「子慟矣!」曰:「有慟乎!非夫人之為慟而誰為!」

When Yen Yüan died the Master gave way to grief. His followers said, Sir, ye are giving way. The Master said, Am I giving way? If I did not give way for this man, for whom should I give way to grief?

10. 顏淵死,門人欲厚葬之,子曰:「不可。」門人厚葬之。子曰:「回也,視予猶父也 ,予不得視猶子也。非我也,夫二三子也。」

When Yen Yüan died the disciples wished to bury him in pomp. The Master said, This must not be. The disciples buried him in pomp. The Master said, Hui treated me as his father. I have failed to treat him as a son. No, not I; but ye, my two-three boys.

11. 季路問事鬼神。子曰:「未能事人,焉能事鬼?」「敢問死?」曰:「未知生,焉知 死?」

Chi-lu asked what is due to the ghosts of the dead? The Master said, When we cannot do our duty to the living, how can we do it to the dead? He dared to ask about death. We know not life, said the Master, how can we know death?

12. 閔子侍側,誾誾如也;子路,行行如也;冉有、子貢,侃侃如也。子樂。若由也,不 得其死然。

Seeing the disciple Min standing at his side with winning looks, Tzu-lu with warlike front, Jan Yu and Tzu-kung frank and free, the Master's heart was glad. A man like Yu, he said, dies before his day.

13. 魯人為長府。閔子騫曰:「仍舊貫,如之何?何必改作!」子曰:「夫人不言,言必 有中。」

The men of Lu were building the Long Treasury. Min Tzu-ch'ien said, Would not the old one do? Why must it be rebuilt? The Master said, That man does not talk, but when he speaks he hits the mark.

14. 子曰:「由之瑟,奚為於丘之門?」門人不敬子路。子曰:「由也升堂矣!未入於室 也!」

The Master said, What has the lute of Yu to do, twanging at my door? But when the disciples looked down on Tzu-lu, the Master said, Yu has come up into hall, but he has not yet entered the inner rooms.

15. 子貢問:「師與商也孰賢?」子曰:「師也過,商也不及。」曰:「然則師愈與?」 子曰:「過猶不及。」

Tzu-kung asked, Which is the better, Shih or Shang? The Master said, Shih goes too far, Shang not far enough. Then is Shih the better? said Tzu-kung. Too far, said the Master, is no nearer than not far enough.

Author: Confucius (孔夫子); translated by James Legge

Even at a meal of coarse rice, or herb broth, or gourds, he made his offering with all reverence.

鄉黨第十 Book X

1. 孔子於鄉黨,恂恂如也,似不能言者。其在宗廟朝廷,便便言,唯謹爾。

Among his own country folk Confucius wore a homely look, like one that has no word to say. In the ancestral temple and at court his speech was full, but cautious.

2. 朝與下大夫言,侃侃如也;與上大夫言,誾誾如也。君在,踧踖如也,與與如也。

At court he talked frankly to men of low rank, winningly to men of high rank. When the king was there, he looked intent and solemn.

3. 君召使擯,色勃如也。足躩如也,揖所與立,左右手,衣前後,襜如也。趨進,翼如 也。賓退,必復命,曰:「賓不顧矣。」

When the king bade him receive guests, his face seemed to change and his legs to bend. He bowed left and right to those beside him, straightened his robes in front and behind, and swept forward, with arms spread like wings. When the guest had left, he brought back word, saying, The guest is no longer looking.

4. 入公門,鞠躬如也,如不容。立不中門,行不履閾。過位,色勃如也,足躩如也,其 言似不足者。攝齊升堂,鞠躬如也,屏氣似不息者。出,降一等,逞顏色,怡怡如也;沒階趨進,翼如也;復其位,踧踖如也。

As he went in at the palace gate he stooped, as though it were too low for him. He did not stand in the middle of the gate, or step on the threshold. When he passed the throne, his face seemed to change and his legs to bend: he spake with bated breath. As he went up the hall to audience, he lifted his robes, bowed his back, and masked his breathing till it seemed to stop. As he came down, he relaxed his face below the first step and looked pleased. From the foot of the steps he swept forward with arms spread like wings; and when he was back in his seat, he looked intent as before.

5. 執圭,鞠躬如也;如不勝。上如揖,下如授,勃如戰色,足縮縮如有循。享禮有容色, 私覿愉愉如也。

When he carried the sceptre, his back bent, as under too heavy a burden; he lifted it no higher than in bowing and no lower than in making a gift. His face changed, as it will with fear, and he dragged his feet, as though they were fettered. When he offered his present his manner was formal; but at the private audience he was cheerful.

6. 君子不以以紺緅飾,紅紫不以為褻服;當暑,袗絺綌,必表而出之。緇衣羔裘,素衣麑 裘,黃衣狐裘。褻裘長,短右袂。必有寢衣,長一身有半。狐貉之厚以居。去喪無所不佩。非帷裳,必殺之。羔裘玄冠,不以弔。吉月,必朝服而朝。

The gentleman was never decked in violet or mauve; even at home he would not wear red or purple. In hot weather he wore an unlined linen gown, but always over other clothes. With lamb-skin he wore black, with fawn, white, and with fox-skin, yellow. At home he wore a long fur gown, with the right sleeve short. His nightgown was always half as long again as his body. In the house he wore thick fur, of fox or badger. When he was not in mourning there was nothing missing from his girdle. Except for sacrificial dress, he was sparing of stuff. He did not wear lamb's fur, or a black cap, on a mourning visit. At the new moon he always put on court dress and went to court.

7. 齊,必有明衣布。齊,必變食。居,必遷坐。

On his days of abstinence he always wore linen clothes of a pale colour; and he changed his food and moved from his wonted seat.

8. 食不厭精,膾不厭細。食饐而餲,魚餒而肉敗不食,色惡不食,臭惡不食,失飪不食, 不時不食,割不正不食,不得其醬不食。肉雖多,不使勝食氣。惟酒無量,不及亂。沽酒,市脯,不食。不撤薑食。不多食。祭於公,不宿肉。祭肉,不出三日;出三日,不食之矣。食不語,寢不言。雖疏食,菜羹,瓜祭,必齊如也。

He did not dislike well-cleaned rice or hash chopped small. He did not eat sour or mouldy rice, bad fish, or tainted flesh. He did not eat anything that had a bad colour or that smelt bad, or food that was badly cooked or out of season. Food that was badly cut or served with the wrong sauce he did not eat. However much flesh there might be, it could not conquer his taste for rice. To wine alone he set no limit, but he did not drink enough to muddle him. He did not drink bought wine, or eat ready-dried market meat. He never went without ginger at a meal. He did not eat much. After a sacrifice at the palace he did not keep the flesh over-night. He never kept sacrificial flesh more than three days. If it had been kept longer it was not eaten. He did not talk at meals, nor speak when he was in bed.

Even at a meal of coarse rice, or herb broth, or gourds, he made his offering with all reverence.

9. 席不正不坐。 If his mat was not straight, he would not sit down.

10. 鄉人飲酒,杖者出,斯出矣。鄉人儺,朝服而立於阼階。

When the villagers were drinking wine, as those that walked with a staff left, he left too. At the village exorcisms he put on court dress and stood on the east steps.

11. 問人於他邦,再拜而送之。康子饋藥,拜而受之,曰:「丘未達,不敢嘗。」

When sending a man with enquiries to another land, he bowed twice to him and saw him out. When K'ang gave him some drugs, he bowed, accepted them, and said, I have never taken them; I dare not taste them.

12. 廄焚,子退朝,曰:「傷人乎?」不問馬。

On coming back from court after his stables had been burnt, the Master said, Is anyone hurt? He did not ask about the horses.

13. 君賜食,必正席先嘗之。君賜腥,必熟而薦之。君賜生,必畜之。侍食於君,君祭先 飯。疾君視之,東首,加朝服拖紳。君命召,不俟駕行矣。

When the king sent him cooked meat, he put his mat straight, and tasted it first; when he sent him raw flesh, he had it cooked, and offered it to the spirits; when he sent him a live beast, he kept it alive. When he ate in attendance on the king, the king made the offering, he tasted things first. When he was sick and the king came to see him, he lay with his head to the east, with his court dress over him and his girdle across it. When he was called by the king's bidding, he walked, without waiting for his carriage.

14. 入大廟,每事問。

On going into the Great Temple he asked about everything.

15. 朋友死,無所歸,曰:「於我殯。」朋友之饋,雖車馬,非祭肉,不拜。

When a friend died, who had no home to go to, he said, It is for me to bury him. When friends sent him anything, even a carriage and horses, he never bowed, unless the gift was sacrificial flesh.

16. 寢不尸,居不容。見齊衰者,雖狎必變。見冕者與瞽者,雖褻必以貌。凶服者式之; 式負版者,有盛饌,必變色而作。迅雷風烈必變。

He did not sleep like a corpse. At home he unbent. Even if he knew him well, his face changed when he saw a mourner. Even when he was in undress, if he saw anyone in full dress, or a blind man, he looked grave. To men in deep mourning and to the census-bearers he bowed over the cross-bar. Before choice meats he rose with changed look. At sharp thunder, or a fierce wind, his look changed.

17. 升車,必正立執綏。車中不內顧,不疾言,不親指。

When mounting his carriage he stood straight and grasped the cord. When he was in it, he did not look round, or speak fast, or point.

18. 色斯舉矣,翔而後集。曰:「山梁雌雉,時哉時哉!」子路共之,三嗅而作。

Seeing a man's face, she rose, flew round and settled. The Master said, Hen pheasant on the ridge, it is the season, it is the season. Tzu-lu went towards her: she sniffed thrice and rose.

Author: Confucius (孔夫子); translated by James Legge

The Master said, Wisdom has no doubts; love does not fret; the bold have no fears.

16. 子在川上曰:「逝者如斯夫!不舍晝夜。」

As he stood by a stream, the Master said, Hasting away like this, day and night, without stop!

17. 子曰:「吾未見好德如好色者也。」

The Master said, I have seen no one that loves mind as he loves looks.

18. 子曰:「譬如為山,未成一簣,止,吾止也!譬如平地,雖覆一簣,進,吾往也!」

The Master said, In making a mound, if I stop when one more basket would finish it, I stop. When flattening ground, if, after overturning one basket, I go on, I go ahead.

19. 子曰:「語之而不惰者,其回也與?」

The Master said, Never listless when spoken to, such was Hui.

20. 子謂顏淵曰:「惜乎!吾見其進也,吾未見其止也!」

Speaking of Yen Yüan, the Master said, The pity of it! I saw him go on, but I never saw him stop!

21. 子曰:「苗而不秀者,有矣夫!秀而不實者,有矣夫!」

The Master said, Some sprouts do not blossom, some blossoms bear no fruit!

22. 子曰:「後生可畏,焉知來者之不如今也?四十五十而無聞焉,斯亦不足畏也已!」

The Master said, Awe is due to youth. May not to-morrow be bright as to-day? To men of forty or fifty, who are still unknown, no awe is due.

23. 子曰:「法語之言,能無從乎?改之為貴!巽與之言,能無說乎?繹之為貴!說而不 繹,從而不改,吾末如之何也已矣!」

The Master said, Who would not give ear to a downright word? But to mend is better. Who would not be pleased by a guiding word? But to think it out is better. With such as are pleased but do not think out, or who listen but do not mend, I can do nothing.

24. 子曰:「主忠信,毋友不如己者,過則勿憚改。」

The Master said, Put faithfulness and truth first; have no friends unlike thyself; be not ashamed to mend thy faults.

25. 子曰:「三軍可奪帥也,匹夫不可奪志也。」

The Master said, Three armies may be robbed of their leader, no wretch can be robbed of his will.

26. 子曰:「衣敝縕袍,與衣孤貉者立,而不恥者,其由也與!不忮不求,何用不臧?」 子路終身誦之。子曰:「是道也,何足以臧!」

The Master said, Yu is the man to stand, clad in a worn-out quilted gown, unashamed, amid robes of fox and badger! Without hatred or greed, What but good does he do? But when Tzu-lu was everlastingly humming these words, the Master said, This is the way towards it, but how much short of goodness itself!

27. 子曰:「歲寒,然後知松柏之後彫也。」

The Master said, Erst the cold days show how fir and cypress are last to fade.

28. 子曰:「知者不惑,仁者不憂,勇者不懼。」

The Master said, Wisdom has no doubts; love does not fret; the bold have no fears.

29. 子曰:「可與共學,未可與適道;可與適道,未可與立;可與立,未可與權。」

The Master said, With some we can learn together, but we cannot go their way; we can go the same way with others, though our standpoint is not the same; and with some, though our standpoint is the same our weights and scales are not.

30. 「唐棣之華,偏其反而,豈不爾思?室是遠而。」子曰:「未之思也,未何遠之 有?」

The blossoms of the plum tree Are dancing in play; My thoughts are with thee, In thy home far away. The Master said, Her thoughts were not with him, or how could he be far away?

Author: Confucius (孔夫子); translated by James Legge

From four things the Master was quite free: by-ends and 'must' and 'shall' and 'I.'

子罕第九 BOOK IX

1. 子罕言利,與命與仁。

The Master seldom spake of gain, or love, or the Bidding.

2. 達巷黨人曰,「大哉孔子,博學而無所成名。」子聞之,謂門弟子曰,「吾何執?執御 乎,執射乎?吾執御矣。」

A man of the village of Ta-hsiang said, The great Confucius, with his vast learning, has made no name in anything. When the Master heard this, he said to his disciples, What shall I take up? Shall I take up driving, or shall I take up shooting? I shall take up driving.

3. 子曰:「麻冕,禮也。今也純儉,吾從眾。拜下,禮也。今拜乎上,泰也,雖違眾,吾 從下。」

The Master said, A linen cap is good form; now silk is worn. It is cheap, so I follow the many. To bow below is good form; now it is done above. This is arrogance, so, breaking with the many, I still bow below.

4. 子絕四,毋意,毋必,毋固,毋我。

From four things the Master was quite free: by-ends and 'must' and 'shall' and 'I.'

5. 子畏於匡。曰:「文王既沒,文不在茲乎,天之將喪斯文也。後死者不得與於斯文也。 天之未喪斯文也。匡人其如予何。」

When he was afraid in K'uang, the Master said, Since the death of King Wen, is not the seat of culture here? If Heaven had meant to destroy our culture, a later mortal would have had no part in it. Until Heaven condemns our culture, what can the men of K'uang do to me?

6. 大宰問於子貢曰:「夫子聖者與!何其多能也?」子貢曰:「固天縱之將聖,又多能 也。」子聞之曰:「大宰知我乎?吾少也賤,故多能鄙事。君子多乎哉?不多也!」牢曰:「子云:『吾不試,故藝。』

A high minister said to Tzu-kung, The Master must be a holy man, he can do so many things! Tzu-kung said, Heaven has, indeed, given him so much that he is almost holy, and he can do many things, too. When the Master heard this, he said, Does the minister know me? Because I was poor when young, I can do many paltry things. But does doing many things make a gentleman? No, not doing many does. Lao said, The Master would say, As I had no post I learned the crafts.

7. 子曰:「吾有知乎哉?無知也。有鄙夫問於我,空空如也;我叩其兩端而竭焉。」

The Master said, Have I in truth wisdom? I have no wisdom. But when a common fellow emptily asks me anything, I tap it on this side and that, and sift it to the bottom.

8. 子曰:「鳳鳥不至,河不出圖,吾已矣乎!」

The Master said, The phœnix comes not, the River gives forth no sign: all is over with me!

9. 子見齊衰者,冕衣裳者,與瞽者見之,雖少必作,過之必趨。」

When the Master saw folk clad in mourning, or in cap and gown, or a blind man, he always rose—even for the young,—or, if he was passing them, he quickened his step.

10. 顏淵喟然嘆曰:「仰之彌高,鑽之彌堅,瞻之在前,忽焉在後!夫子循循然善誘人, 博我以文,約我以禮。欲罷不能,既竭吾才,如有所立,卓爾。雖欲從之,末由也已!」

Yen Yüan heaved a sigh, and said, As I look up it grows higher, deeper as I dig! I catch sight of it ahead, and on a sudden it is behind me! The Master leads men on, deftly bit by bit. He widens me with culture, he binds me with courtesy. If I wished to stop I could not until my strength were spent. What seems the mark stands near; but though I long to reach it, I find no way.

11. 子疾病,子路使門人為臣,病間曰:「久矣哉,由之行詐也!無臣而為有臣,吾誰欺 ?欺天乎?且予與其死於臣之手也,無寧死於二三子之手乎?且予縱不得大葬,予死於道路乎?」

When the Master was very ill, Tzu-lu made the disciples act as ministers. During a better spell the Master said, Yu has long been feigning. This show of ministers, when I have no ministers, whom will it take in? Will Heaven be taken in? And is it not better to die in the arms of my two-three boys than to die in the arms of ministers? And, if I miss a big burial, shall I die by the roadside?

12. 子貢曰:「有美玉於斯,韞而藏諸?求善賈而沽諸?」子曰:「沽之哉!沽之哉!我 待賈者也!」

Tzu-kung said, If I had here a fair piece of jade, should I hide it away in a case, or seek a good price and sell it? Sell it, sell it! said the Master. I tarry for my price.

13. 子欲居九夷。或曰:「陋,如之何?」子曰:「君子居之,何陋之有!」

The Master wished to dwell among the nine tribes. One said, They are low; how could ye? The Master said, Wherever a gentleman lives, will there be anything low?

14. 子曰:「吾自衛反魯,然後樂正,雅頌,各得其所。」 The Master said. After I came back from Wei to Lu the music was set straight and each song found its place.

15. 子曰:「出則事公卿,入則事父兄,喪事不敢不勉,不為酒困,何有於我哉!」

The Master said, To serve dukes and ministers abroad and father and brothers at home; in matters of mourning not to dare to be slack; and to be no thrall to wine: to which of these have I won?

Author: Confucius (孔夫子); translated by James Legge

The Master said, How dare I lay claim to holiness or love? A man of endless craving, who never tires of teaching, I might be called, but that is all.

21. 子曰:「三人行,必有我師焉:擇其善者而從之,其不善者而改之。」

The Master said, Walking three together I am sure of teachers. I pick out the good and follow it; I see the bad and shun it.

22. 子曰:「天生德於予,桓魋其如予何?」

The Master said, Heaven begat the mind in me; what can Huan T'ui do to me?

23. 子曰:「二三子以我為隱乎?吾無隱乎爾。吾無行而不與二三子者,是丘也。」

The Master said, My two-three boys, do ye think I hide things? I hide nothing from you. I am a man that keeps none of his doings from his two-three boys.

24. 子以四教:文,行,忠,信。

The Master taught four things: art, conduct, faithfulness and truth.

25. 子曰:「聖人,吾不得而見之矣,得見君子者,斯可矣。」子曰:「善人,吾不得而 見之矣,得見有恒者,斯可矣。亡而為有,虛而為盈,約而為泰,難乎有恒矣。」

The Master said, A holy man I shall not live to see; enough could I find a gentleman! A good man I shall not live to see; enough could I find a steadfast one! But when nothing poses as something, cloud as substance and want as riches, it is hard indeed to be steadfast!

26. 子釣而不綱,弋不射宿。

The Master angled, but he did not fish with a net; he shot, but not at birds sitting.

27. 子曰:「蓋有不知而作之者,我無是也。多聞,擇其善者而從之。多見而識之,知 之次 也。」

The Master said, There may be men that do things without knowing why. I do not. To hear much, pick out the good and follow it; to see much and think it over; this comes next to wisdom.

28. 互鄉難與言,童子見,門人惑。子曰:「與其進也,不與其退也,唯何甚?人潔己以 進,與其潔也,不保其往也。」

To talk to the Hu village was hard. When a lad was seen by the Master, the disciples doubted. The Master said, I allow his coming, not what he does later. Why be so harsh? If a man cleans himself to come in, I admit his cleanness, but do not warrant his past.

29. 子曰:「仁遠乎哉?我欲仁,斯仁至矣。」

The Master said, Is love so far a thing? I long for love, and lo! love is come.

30. 陳司敗問昭公知禮乎,孔子曰:「知禮。」孔子退,揖巫馬期而進之曰:「吾聞君子 不黨,君子亦黨乎?君取於吳,為同姓,謂之吳孟子。君而知禮,孰不知禮?」巫馬期以告。子曰:「丘也幸,苟有過,人必知之。」

A judge of Ch'en asked whether Duke Chao knew good form. Confucius answered, He knew good form. After Confucius had left, the judge beckoned Wu-ma Ch'i to him, and said, I had heard that gentlemen are of no party, but do they, too, take sides? This lord married a Wu, whose name was the same as his, and called her Miss Tzu of Wu: if he knew good form, who does not know good form? When Wu-ma Ch'i told the Master this he said, How lucky I am! If I go wrong, men are sure to know it!

31. 子與人歌而善,必使反之,而後和之。

When anyone sang to the Master, and sang well, he made him sing it again and joined in.

32. 子曰:「文,莫吾猶人也。躬行君子,則吾未之有得。」

The Master said, I have no more reading than others; to live as a gentleman is not yet mine.

33. 子曰:「若聖與仁,則吾豈敢?抑為之不厭,誨人不倦,則可謂云爾已矣。」公西華 曰:「正唯弟子不能學也。」

The Master said, How dare I lay claim to holiness or love? A man of endless craving, who never tires of teaching, I might be called, but that is all. That is just what we disciples cannot learn, said Kung-hsi Hua.

34. 子疾病,子路請禱。子曰:「有諸?」子路對曰:「有之。誄曰:『禱爾于上下神祗 』」子曰:「丘之禱久矣。」

When the Master was very ill, Tzu-lu asked leave to pray. Is it done? said the Master. It is, answered Tzu-lu. The Memorials say, Pray to the spirits above and to the Earth below. The Master said, Long-lasting has my prayer been.

35. 子曰:「奢則不孫,儉則固。與其不孫也,寧固。」

The Master said, Waste makes men unruly, thrift makes them mean; but they are better mean than unruly.

36. 子曰:「君子坦蕩蕩,小人長戚戚。」

The Master said, A gentleman is calm and spacious; the small man is always fretting.

37. 子溫而厲,威而不猛,恭而安。

The Master's manner was warm yet dignified. He was stern, but not fierce; humble, yet easy.

Author: Confucius (孔夫子); translated by James Legge

The Master said, The highest minds cleave to the Centre, the Common. They have long been rare among the people.

1. 子曰:「雍也可使南面。」仲弓問子桑伯子。子曰:「可也簡。」仲弓曰:「居敬而行 簡,以臨其民,不亦可乎?居簡而行簡,無乃大簡乎?」子曰:「雍之言然。」

The Master said, Yung might fill the seat of a prince. And might Tzu-sang Po-tzu? asked Chung-kung. Yes, said the Master; but he is slack. To be stern to himself, said Chung-kung, and slack in his claims on the people, might do; but to be slack himself and slack with others must surely be too slack. The Master said, What Yung says is true.

2. 哀公問:「弟子孰為好學?」孔子對曰:「有顏回者好學,不遷怒,不貳過。不幸短命 死矣,今也則亡,未聞好學者也。」

Duke Ai asked which disciples loved learning. Confucius answered, Yen Hui loved learning. He did not carry over anger; he made no mistake twice. Alas! his mission was short, he died. Now that he is gone, I hear of no one that loves learning.

3. 子華使於齊,冉子為其母請粟。子曰:「與之釜。」請益。曰:「與之庾。」冉子與之 粟五秉。子曰:「赤之適齊也,乘肥馬,衣輕裘。吾聞之也:君子周急不繼富。」原思為之宰,與之粟九百,辭。子曰:「毋!以與爾鄰里鄉黨乎!」

When Tzu-hua was sent to Ch'i, the disciple Jan asked for grain for his mother. The Master said, Give her six pecks. He asked for more. The Master said, Give her sixteen. Jan gave her eight hundred. The Master said, On his way to Ch'i, Ch'ih was drawn by sleek horses and clad in light furs. I have heard that gentlemen help the needy, not that they swell riches. When Yüan Ssu was made governor he was given nine hundred measures of grain, which he refused. Not so, said the Master: why not take it and give it to thy neighbours and countryfolk?

4. 子謂仲弓,曰:「犁牛之子騂且角,雖欲勿用,山川其舍諸?」

The Master said of Chung-kung, If the calf of a brindled cow be red and horned, though men be shy to offer him, will the hills and streams reject him?

5. 子曰:「回也,其心三月不違仁,其餘則日月至焉而已矣。」

The Master said, For three months together Hui's heart never sinned against love. The others may hold out for a day, or a month, but no more.

6. 季康子問:「仲由可使從政也與?」子曰:「由也果,於從政乎何有?」曰:「賜也可 使從政也與?」曰:「賜也達,於從政乎何有?」曰:「求也可使從政也與?」曰:「求也藝,於從政乎何有?」

Chi K'ang asked whether Chung-yu was fit to govern. The Master said, Yu is firm; what would governing be to him? And is Tz'u fit to govern? Tz'u is thorough; what would governing be to him? And is Ch'iu fit to govern? Ch'in is clever; what would governing be to him?

7. 季氏使閔子騫為費宰。閔子騫曰:「善為我辭焉!如有復我者,則吾必在汶上矣。」

The Chi sent to make Min Tzu-ch'ien governor of Pi. Min Tzu-ch'ien said, Make some good excuse for me. If he sends again I must be across the Wen.

8. 伯牛有疾,子問之,自牖執其手,曰:「亡之,命矣夫!斯人也,而有斯疾也!斯人 也,而有斯疾也!」

When Po-niu was ill the Master asked after him. Grasping his hand through the window, he said, He is going. It is the Bidding; but why this man of such an illness? Why this man of such an illness?

9. 子曰:「賢哉,回也!一簞食,一瓢飲,在陋巷,人不堪其憂,回也不改其樂。賢哉, 回也!」

The Master said. What a man was Hui! A bowl of rice, a gourd of water, in a low alley; man cannot bear such misery! Yet Hui never fell from mirth. What a man he was!

10. 冉求曰:「非不說子之道,力不足也。」子曰:「力不足者,中道而廢。今女畫。」

Jan Ch'iu said, It is not that I take no pleasure in the Master's Way: I want strength. The Master said, He that wants strength faints midway; but thou drawest a line.

11. 子謂子夏曰:「女為君子儒!無為小人儒!」

The Master said to Tzu-hsia, Study to be a gentleman, not as the small man studies.

12. 子游為武城宰。子曰:「女得人焉爾乎?」曰:「有澹臺滅明者,行不由徑,非公事 ,未嘗至於偃之室也。」

When Tzu-yu was governor of Wu-ch'eng, the Master said, Hast thou gotten any men? He answered, I have Tan-t'ai Mieh-ming. He will not take a short cut when walking, and he has never come to my house except on business.

13. 子曰:「孟之反不伐,奔而殿,將入門,策其馬,曰:「『非敢後也,馬不進也。』 」

The Master said, Meng Chih-fan never brags. He was covering the rear in a rout; but on coming to the gate he whipped his horse and cried, Not courage kept me behind; my horse won't go!

14. 子曰:「不有祝鮀之佞,而有宋朝之美,難乎免於今之世矣。」

The Master said, Unless we are glib as the reader T'o and fair as Chao of Sung, escape is hard in the times that be!

15. 子曰:「誰能出不由戶?何莫由斯道也?」

The Master said, Who can go out except by the door? Why is it no one keeps to the Way?

16. 子曰:「質勝文則野,文勝質則史。文質彬彬,然後君子。」

The Master said, Matter outweighing art begets roughness; art outweighing matter begets pedantry. Matter and art well blent make a gentleman.

17. 子曰:「人之生也直,罔之生也幸而免。」

The Master said, Man is born straight. If he grows crooked and yet lives, he is lucky to escape.

18. 子曰:「知之者不如好之者,好之者不如樂之者。」

The Master said, He that knows is below him that loves, and he that loves below him that delights therein.

19. 子曰:「中人以上,可以語上也;中人以下,不可以語上也。」

The Master said, To men above the common we can talk of higher things; to men below the common we must not talk of higher things.

20. 樊遲問知。子曰:「務民之義,敬鬼神而遠之,可謂知矣。」問仁。曰:「仁者先難 而後獲,可謂仁矣。」

Fan Ch'ih asked, What is wisdom? The Master said, To foster right among the people; to honour ghosts and spirits, and yet keep aloof from them, may be called wisdom. He asked, What is love? The Master said, To rank the effort above the prize may be called love.

21. 子曰:「知者樂水,仁者樂山。知者動,仁者靜。知者樂,仁者壽。」

The Master said, Wisdom delights in water; love delights in hills. Wisdom is stirring; love is quiet. Wisdom is merry; love grows old.

22. 子曰:「齊一變,至於魯;魯一變,至於道。」

The Master said, By one revolution Ch'i might grow to be Lu; by one revolution Lu might reach the Way.

23. 子曰:「觚不觚,觚哉!觚哉!」

The Master said, A drinking horn that is no horn! What a horn! What a drinking horn!

24. 宰我問曰:「仁者,雖告之曰,『井有仁焉。』其從之也?」子曰:「何為其然也? 君子可逝也,不可陷也;可欺也,不可罔也。」

Tsai Wo said, If a man of love were told that a man is in a well, would he go in after him? The Master said, Why should he? A gentleman might be got to the well, but not trapped into it, He may be cheated, but not fooled.

25. 子曰:「君子博學於文,約之以禮,亦可以弗畔矣夫!」

The Master said, By breadth of reading and the ties of courtesy, a gentleman is kept, too, from false paths.

26. 子見南子,子路不說。夫子矢之曰:「予所否者,天厭之!天厭之!」

The Master saw Nan-tzu. Tzu-lu was displeased. The Master took an oath, saying, If I have done wrong, may Heaven forsake me, may Heaven forsake me!

27. 子曰:「中庸之為德也,其至矣乎!民鮮久矣。」

The Master said, The highest minds cleave to the Centre, the Common. They have long been rare among the people.

28. 子貢曰:「如有博施於民,而能濟眾,何如?可謂仁乎?」子曰:「何事於仁,必也 聖乎!堯舜其猶病諸!夫仁者,己欲立而立人,己欲達而達人。能近取譬,可謂仁之方也已。」

Tzu-kung said, To treat the people with bounty and help the many, how were that? Could it be called love? The Master said, What has this to do with love? Must it not be holiness? Yao and Shun still yearned for this. Seeking a foothold for self, love finds a foothold for others; seeking light for itself, it enlightens others too. To learn from the near at hand may be called the clue to love.

Author: Confucius (孔夫子); translated by James Legge

1. 子曰:「里仁為美。擇不處仁,焉得知?」

The Master said, Love makes a spot beautiful: who chooses not to dwell in love, has he got wisdom?

2. 子曰:「不仁者,不可以久處約,不可以長處樂。仁者安仁,知者利仁。」

The Master said, Loveless men cannot bear need long, they cannot bear fortune long. Loving men find peace in love, the wise find profit in it.

3. 子曰:「惟仁者,能好人,能惡人。」

The Master said, Love alone can love others, or hate others.

4. 子曰:「苟志於仁矣,無惡也。」

The Master said, A will set on love is free from evil.

5. 子曰:「富與貴,是人之所欲也,不以其道得之,不處也。貧與賤,是人之惡也,不以 其道得之,不去也。君子去仁,惡乎成名。君子無終食之間違仁,造次必於是,顛沛必於是。」

The Master said, Wealth and honours are what men desire; but do not go from the Way, to keep them. Lowliness and want are hated by men; but do not go from the Way, to escape them. Shorn of love, is a gentleman worthy of the name? Not for one moment may a gentleman sin against love; he must not do so in flurry and haste, nor do so in utter overthrow.

6. 子曰:「我未見好仁者,惡不仁者。好仁者,無以尚之;惡不仁者,其為仁矣,不使不 仁者加乎其身。有能一日用其力於仁矣乎?我未見力不足者。蓋有之矣,我未之見也。」

The Master said, I have seen no one that loves love and hates uncharity. He that loves love will set nothing higher. The hater of uncharity is so given to love that no uncharity can enter into his life. If a man were to give his strength to love for one day, I have seen no one whose strength would fail him. There may be such men, but I have not seen one.

7. 子曰:「人之過也,各於其黨。觀過,斯知仁矣。」

The Master said, A man and his faults are of a piece. By watching his faults we learn whether love be his.

8. 子曰:「朝聞道,夕死可矣!」

The Master said, To learn the Way at daybreak and die at eve were enough.

9. 子曰:「士志於道,而恥惡衣惡食者,未足與議也!」

The Master said, A knight in quest of the Way, who is ashamed of bad clothes and bad food, it is idle talking to.

10. 子曰:「君子之於天下也,無適也,無莫也,義之於比。」

The Master said, A gentleman has no likes or dislikes below heaven. He follows right.

11. 子曰:「君子懷德,小人懷土;君子懷刑,小人懷惠。」

The Master said, The gentleman cherishes mind, the small man cherishes dirt. Gentlemen trust in the law, the small man trusts in favour.

12. 子曰:「放於利而行,多怨。」

The Master said, The chase of gain is rich in hate.

13. 子曰:「能以禮讓為國乎,何有!不能以禮讓為國,如禮何!」

The Master said, What is it to sway a kingdom by courteous yielding? If we cannot sway a kingdom by courteous yielding, what is our courtesy worth?

14. 子曰:「不患無位,患所以立;不患莫己知,求為可知也。」

The Master said, Care not for want of place; care for thy readiness to fill one. Care not for being unknown, but seek to be worthy of note.

15. 子曰:「參乎!吾道一以貫之。」曾子曰:「唯。」子出。門人問曰:「何謂也?」 曾子曰:「夫子之道,忠恕而已矣。」

The Master said, One line, Shen, runs through my Way. Yes, said Tseng-tzu. After the Master had left, the disciples asked what was meant. Tseng-tzu said, The Master's Way is no more than faithfulness and fellow-feeling.

16. 子曰:「君子喻於義,小人喻於利。」

The Master said, The gentleman is learned in right; the small man is learned in gain.

17. 子曰:「見賢思齊焉,見不賢而內自省也。」

The Master said, At sight of worth, think to grow like it; at sight of baseness, search thyself within.

18. 子曰:「事父母幾諫,見志不從,又敬不違,勞而不怨。」

The Master said, A father or a mother may be gently chidden. If thou seest they have no will to follow thee, be the more lowly, but do not give way; nor murmur at the trouble they give thee.

19. 子曰:「父母在,不遠遊,遊必有方。」

The Master said, Whilst thy father and mother are living, do not wander afar. If thou must travel, hold a set course.

20. 子曰:「三年無改於父之道,可謂孝矣。」

The Master said, He that changes nothing in his father's ways for three years may be called pious.

21. 子曰:「父母之年,不可不知也:一則以喜,一則以懼。」

The Master said, A father and mother's years must be borne in mind; with gladness on the one hand and fear on the other.

22. 子曰:「古者言之不出,恥躬之不逮也。」

The Master said, The men of old were loth to speak, for not to live up to their words would have shamed them.

23. 子曰:「以約失之者,鮮矣。」

The Master said, We shall seldom get lost if we hold to main lines.

24. 子曰:「君子欲訥於言,而敏於行。」

The Master said, A gentleman wishes to be slow to speak and quick to do.

25. 子曰:「德不孤,必有鄰。」

The Master said, A great soul is never friendless: he has always neighbours.

26. 子游曰:「事君數,斯辱矣;朋友數,斯疏矣。」

Tzu-yu said, Nagging at kings brings disgrace, nagging at friends estrangement.

1. 子曰:「為政以德,譬如北辰,居其所而眾星共之。」
The Master said, He that rules by mind is like the north star, steady in his seat, whilst the stars all bend to him.

2. 子曰:「詩三百,一言以蔽之,曰:思無邪。」
The Master said, The three hundred poems are summed up in the one line, Think no evil.

3. 子曰:「道之以政,齊之以刑,民免而無恥;道之以德,齊之以禮,有恥且格。」
The Master said, Guide the people by law, aline them by punishment; they may shun crime, but they will want shame. Guide them by mind, aline them by courtesy; they will learn shame and grow good.

4. 子曰:「吾十有五而志于學,三十而立,四十而不惑,五十而知天命,六十而耳順,七 十而從心所欲,不踰矩。」
The Master said, At fifteen, I had the will to learn; at thirty, I could stand; at forty, I had no doubts; at fifty, I understood the heavenly Bidding; at sixty, my ears were opened; at seventy, I could do as my heart lusted without trespassing from the square.

5. 孟懿子問孝。子曰:「無違。」樊遲御,子告之曰:「孟孫問孝於我,我對曰,『無 違。』」樊遲曰:「何謂也?」子曰:「生,事之以禮;死,葬之以禮,祭之以禮。」
Meng Yi asked the duty of a son.
The Master said, Not to transgress.
As Fan Chi'ih was driving him, the Master said, Meng-sun asked me the duty of a son; I answered, Not to transgress.
What did ye mean? said Fan Chi'ih.
To serve our father and mother with courtesy whilst they live; to bury them with courtesy when they die, and to worship them with courtesy.

6. 孟武伯問孝。子曰:「父母唯其疾之憂。」
Meng Wu asked the duty of a son.
The Master said, He should not grieve his father and mother by anything but illness.

7. 子游問孝。子曰:「今之孝者,是謂能養。至於犬馬,皆能有養;不敬,何以別乎。」
Tzu-yu asked the duty of a son.
The Master said, He that can feed his parents is now called a good son. But both dogs and horses are fed, and unless we honour our parents, what is the difference?

8. 子夏問孝。子曰:「色難。有事,弟子服其勞;有酒食,先生饌,曾是以為孝乎?」
Tzu-hsia asked the duty of a son.
The Master said, Our manner is the hard part. For the young to be a stay in toil and leave the wine and food to their elders, is this to fulfill their duty?

9. 子曰:「吾與回言終日,不違如愚。退而省其私,亦足以發,回也不愚。」
The Master said, If I talk all day to Hui, like a dullard, he never differs from me. But when he is gone, if I watch him when alone, he can carry out what I taught. No, Hui is no dullard!

10. 子曰:「視其所以,觀其所由,察其所安。人焉廋哉?人焉廋哉?」
The Master said, See what he does; watch what moves him; search what pleases him: can the man lie hidden? Can the man lie hidden?

11. 子曰:「溫故而知新,可以為師矣。」
The Master said, To keep old knowledge warm and get new makes the teacher.

12. 子曰:「君子不器。」
The Master said, A gentleman is not a vessel.

13. 子貢問君子。子曰:「先行其言,而後從之。」
Tzu-kung asked, What is a gentleman?
The Master said, He puts words into deeds first, and follows these up with words.

14. 子曰:「君子周而不比,小人比而不周。」
The Master said, A gentleman is broad and fair; the small man takes sides and is narrow.

15. 子曰:「學而不思則罔,思而不學則殆。」
The Master said, Learning without thought is naught; thought without learning is dangerous.

16. 子曰:「攻乎異端,斯害也己。」
The Master said, To fight strange doctrines does harm.

17. 子曰:「由!誨女知之乎!知之為知之,不知為不知,是知也。」
The Master said, Yu, shall I teach thee what is wisdom? To know what we know, and know what we do not know, is wisdom.

18. 子張學干祿。子曰:「多聞闕疑,慎言其餘,則寡尤。多見闕殆,慎行其餘,則寡 悔。言寡尤,行寡悔,祿在其中矣。」
Tsu-chang learned with an eye to pay.
The Master said, Hear much, leave all that is doubtful alone, speak warily of everything else, and few will be offended. See much, leave all that is dangerous alone, deal warily with everything else, and thou wilt have little to rue. If thy words seldom give offence, and thy deeds leave little to rue, pay will follow.

19. 哀公問曰:「何為則民服?」孔子對曰:「舉直錯諸枉,則民服;舉枉錯諸直,則民 不 服。」
Duke Ai asked, What should I do to win the people?
Confucius answered, Lift up the straight, put away the crooked; and the people will be won. Lift up the crooked, put away the straight; and the people will not be won.

20. 季康子問:「使民敬忠以勸,如之何?」子曰:「臨之以莊則敬,孝慈則忠,舉善而 教不能則勸。」
Chi K'ang asked how to make the people lowly, faithful and painstaking.
The Master said, Meet them with dignity, they will be lowly; be a good son and merciful, they will be faithful; lift up the good and teach the unskilled, and they will take pains.

21. 或謂孔子曰:「子奚不為政?」子曰:「書云:『孝乎惟孝,友于兄弟,施於有 政。』是亦為政,奚其為為政?」
One said to Confucius, Why do ye not govern, Sir?
The Master said, What does the Book say of a good son? 'To be a good son and a friend to thy brothers is to show how to govern.' This, too, is to govern. Must one be in office to govern?

22. 子曰:「人而無信,不知其可也。大車無輗,小車無軏,其何以行之哉?」
The Master said, A man without truth, I know not what good he is! A cart without a crosspole, a carriage without a yoke, how can they be moved?

23. 子張問:「十世可知也?」子曰:「殷因於夏禮,所損益可知也;周因於殷禮,所損 益可知也。其或繼周者,雖百世,可知也。」
Tzu-chang asked whether we can know what is to be ten generations hence.
The Master said, The Yin took over the manners of the Hsia; the harm and the good that they did them can be known. The Chou took over the manners of the Yin; the harm and the good that they did them can be known. And we may know what shall be, even an hundred generations hence, whoever follows Chou.

24. 子曰:「非其鬼而祭之,諂也。見義不為,無勇也。」
The Master said, To worship the ghosts of men not akin to us is fawning. To see the right and not do it is want of courage.

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