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New Particle Physics Predicted by TGD: Part II (By Matti Pitkänen):

In this article the focus is on the hadron physics. The applications are to various anomalies discovered during years.

1. Application of the many-sheeted space-time concept in hadron physics. The many-sheeted space-time concept involving also the notion of field body can be applied to hadron physics to explain findings which are difficult to understand in the framework of standard model. The spin puzzle of proton is a two decades old mystery with no satisfactory explanation in QCD framework. The notion of hadronic space-time sheet which could be imagined as string like rotating object suggests a possible approach to the spin puzzle. The entanglement between valence quark spins and the angular momentum states of the rotating hadronic space-time sheet could allow natural explanation for why the average valence quark spin vanishes. The notion of Pomeron was invented during the Bootstrap era preceding QCD to solve difficulties of Regge approach. There are experimental findings suggesting the reincarnation of this concept. The possibility that the newly born concept of Pomeron of Regge theory might be identified as the sea of perturbative QCD in TGD framework is considered. Geometrically Pomeron would correspond to hadronic space-time sheet without valence quarks.

The discovery that the charge radius of proton deduced from the muonic version of hydrogen atom is about 4 per cent smaller than from the radius deduced from hydrogen atom is in complete conflict with the cherished belief that atomic physics belongs to the museum of science. The title of the article {\it Quantum electrodynamics-a chink in the armour?} of the article published in Nature expresses well the possible implications, which might actually go well extend beyond QED. TGD based model for the findings relies on the notion of color magnetic body carrying both electromagnetic and color fields and extends well beyond the size scale of the particle. This gives rather detailed constraints on the model of the magnetic body. The soft photon production rate in hadronic reactions is by an average factor of about four higher than expected. In the article soft photons assignable to the decays of $Z^0$ to quark-antiquark pairs. This anomaly has not reached the attention of particle physics which seems to be the fate of anomalies quite generally nowadays: large extra dimensions and black-holes at LHC are much more sexy topics of study than the anomalies about which both existing and speculative theories must remain silent. TGD based model is based on the notion of electric flux tube.

2. Quark gluon plasma

QCD predicts that at sufficiently high collision energies de-confinement phase transitions for quarks should take place leading to quark gluon plasma. In heavy ion collisions at RHIC something like this was found to happen. The properties of the quark gluon plasma were however not what was expected. There are long range correlations and the plasma seems to behave like perfect fluid with minimal viscosity/entropy ratio. The lifetime of the plasma phase is longer than expected and its density much higher than QCD would suggest. The experiments at LHC for proton proton collisions suggest also the presence of quark gluon plasma with similar properties. TGD suggests an interpretation in terms of long color magnetic flux tubes containing the plasma. The confinement to color magnetic flux tubes would force higher density. The preferred extremals of K\"ahler action have interpretation as defining a flow of perfect incompressible fluid and the perfect fluid property is broken only by the many-sheeted structure of space-time with smaller space-time sheets assignable to sub-$CD$s representing radiative corrections. The phase in question corresponds to a non-standard value of Planck constant: this could also explain why the lifetime of the phase is longer than expected.

Particle Massivation in TGD Universe (by Matti Pitkänen):

This article represents the most recent view about particle massivation in TGD framework. This topic is necessarily quite extended since many several notions and new mathematics is involved. Indeed, the calculation of particle masses involves five chapters of [11]. In the following my goal is to provide an up-to-date summary whereas the chapters are unavoidably a story about evolution of ideas.

The identification of the spectrum of light particles reduces to two tasks: the construction of massless states and the identification of the states which remain light in p-adic thermodynamics. The latter task is relatively straightforward. The thorough understanding of the massless spectrum requires however a real understanding of quantum TGD. It would be also highly desirable to understand why p-adic thermodynamics combined with p-adic length scale hypothesis works. A lot of progress has taken place in these respects during last years.

Zero energy ontology providing a detailed geometric view about bosons and fermions, the generalization of $S$-matrix to what I call $M$-matrix, the notion of finite measurement resolution characterized in terms of inclusions of von Neumann algebras, the derivation of p-adic coupling constant evolution and p-adic length scale hypothesis from the first principles, the realization that the counterpart of Higgs mechanism involves generalized eigenvalues of the modified Dirac operator: these are represent important steps of progress during last years with a direct relevance for the understanding of particle spectrum and massivation although the predictions of p-adic thermodynamics are not affected.

During 2010 a further progress took place. These steps of progress relate closely to zero energy ontology, bosonic emergence, the realization of the importance of twistors in TGD, and to the discovery of the weak form of electric-magnetic duality. Twistor approach and the understanding of the Chern-Simons Dirac operator served as a midwife in the process giving rise to the birth of the idea that all particles at fundamental level are massless and that both ordinary elementary particles and string like objects emerge from them. Even more, one can interpret virtual particles as being composed of these massless on mass shell particles assignable to wormhole throats so that four-momentum conservation poses extremely powerful constraints on loop integrals and makes them manifestly finite.

The weak form of electric-magnetic duality led to the realization that elementary particles correspond to bound states of two wormhole throats with opposite K\"ahler magnetic charges with second throat carrying weak isospin compensating that of the fermion state at second wormhole throat. Both fermions and bosons correspond to wormhole contacts: in the case of fermions topological condensation generates the second wormhole throat. This means that altogether four wormhole throats are involved with both fermions, gauge bosons, and gravitons (for gravitons this is unavoidable in any case). For p-adic thermodynamics the mathematical counterpart of string corresponds to a wormhole contact with size of order $CP_2$ size with the role of its ends played by wormhole throats at which the signature of the induced 4-metric changes. The key observation is that for massless states the throats of spin 1 particle must have opposite three-momenta so that gauge bosons are necessarily massive, even photon and other particles usually regarded as massless must have small mass which in turn cancels infrared divergences and give hopes about exact Yangian symmetry generalizing that of ${\cal N}=4$ SYM. Besides this there is weak "stringy" contribution to the mass assignable to the magnetic flux tubes connecting the two wormhole throats at the two space-time sheets.

On Matti Pitkänen’s Topological Geometrodynamics from Particle Physics Perspective (by Dainis Zeps): Abstract: In four articles [1,2,3,4] of current issue of Prespacetime Journal (“PSTJ”), we present Matti Pitkänen’s work devoted to his new physical results after the first experimental results at Large Hadron Collider are made public. We discuss here some of Pitkanen’s insights in these papers and note his excessive use of mathematical innovations as main tools in way of development of his TGD universe.

Overall View about TGD from Particle Physics Perspective (by Matti Pitkänen):

Topological Geometrodynamics is able to make rather precise and often testable predictions. In this and two other articles I want to describe the recent over all view about the aspects of quantum TGD relevant for particle physics. In the first article I will concentrate the heuristic picture about TGD with emphasis on particle physics. First I will represent briefly the basic ontology: the motivations for TGD and the notion of many-sheeted space-time, the concept of zero energy ontology, the identification of dark matter in terms of hierarchy of Planck constant which now seems to follow as a prediction of quantum TGD, the motivations for p-adic physics and its basic implications, and the identification of space-time surfaces as generalized Feynman diagrams and the basic implications of this identification.

Symmetries of quantum TGD are discussed. Besides the basic symmetries of the imbedding space geometry allowing to geometrize standard model quantum numbers and classical fields there are many other symmetries. General Coordinate Invariance is especially powerful in TGD framework allowing to realize quantum classical correspondence and implies effective 2-dimensionality realizing strong form of holography. Super-conformal symmetries of super string models generalize to conformal symmetries of 3-D light-like 3-surfaces and one can understand the generalization of Equivalence Principle in terms of coset representations for the two super Virasoro algebras associated with lightlike boundaries of so called causal diamonds defined as intersections of future and past directed lightcones ($CD$s) and with light-like 3-surfaces. Super-conformal symmetries imply generalization of the space-time supersymmetry in TGD framework consistent with the supersymmetries of minimal supersymmetric variant of the standard model. Twistorial approach to gauge theories has gradually become part of quantum TGD and the natural generalization of the Yangian symmetry identified originally as symmetry of ${\cal N}=4$ SYMs is postulated as basic symmetry of quantum TGD.

The so called weak form of electric-magnetic duality has turned out to have extremely far reaching consequences and is responsible for the recent progress in the understanding of the physics predicted by TGD. The duality leads to a detailed identification of elementary particles as composite objects of massless particles and predicts new electro-weak physics at LHC. Together with a simple postulate about the properties of preferred extremals of K\"ahler action the duality allows also to realize quantum TGD as almost topological quantum field theory giving excellent hopes about integrability of quantum TGD.

There are two basic visions about the construction of quantum TGD. Physics as infinite-dimensional K\"ahler geometry of world of classical worlds (WCW) endowed with spinor structure and physics as generalized number theory. These visions are briefly summarized as also the practical constructing involving the concept of Dirac operator. As a matter fact, the construction of TGD involves three Dirac operators. The K\"ahler Dirac equation holds true in the interior of space-time surface and its solutions havea natural interpretation in terms of description of matter, in particular condensed matter. Chern-Simons Dirac action is associated with the light-like 3-surfaces and space-like 3-surfaces at ends of space-time surface at light-like boundaries of $CD$. One can assign to it a generalized eigenvalue equation and the matrix valued eigenvalues correspond to the the action of Dirac operator on momentum eigenstates.

Momenta are however not usual momenta but pseudo-momenta very much analogous to region momenta of twistor approach. The third Dirac operator is associated with super Virasoro generators and super Virasoro conditions define Dirac equation in WCW. These conditions characterize zero energy states as modes of WCW spinor fields and code for the generalization of $S$-matrix to a collection of what I call $M$-matrices defining the rows of unitary $U$-matrix defining unitary process.

Twistor approach has inspired several ideas in quantum TGD during the last years and it seems that the Yangian symmetry and the construction of scattering amplitudes in terms of Grassmannian integrals generalizes to TGD framework. This is due to ZEO allowing to assume that all particles have massless fermions as basic building blocks. ZEO inspires the hypothesis that incoming and outgoing particles are bound states of fundamental fermions associated with wormhole throats. Virtual particles would also consist of on mass shell massless particles but without bound state constraint. This implies very powerful constraints on loop diagrams and there are excellent hopes about their finiteness. Twistor approach also inspires the conjecture that quantum TGD allows also formulation in terms of 6-dimensional holomorphic surfaces in the product $CP_3\times CP_3$ of two twistor spaces and general arguments allow to identify the partial different equations satisfied by these surfaces.