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Tag search results for: "various aspects"
Commentary on Michael Cecil’s “Towards A New Paradigm of Consciousness” (by Tony Bermanseder): Abstract: Cecil's attempt to delve deeper and to question the validity of this orthodox reductionistic approach to gain a better understanding of what this consciousness is thoroughly justified and is to be applauded. Cecil has indeed found the 'Rosetta Stone' of Quantum Physics in his valiant approach to couple the material reductionism of the orthodoxy with the 'perennial philosophy' or the 'wisdom of the ancients.' However, Cecil has failed to discern the greater picture in his self-relative decoding of the messages, found in the 'Rosetta Stones of the Quantum'. That is, Cecil has thrown the baby out with the bathwater in his attacks on the human thinking process. There is no requirement whatsoever to 'destroy' the reductionism of science in rigorous mathematical and logical argument and deduction.

Commentary on Tony Bermanseder’s “Physical Consciousness in a Self-conscious Quantum Universe” (by Michael Cecil): Abstract: This is my brief Commentary on Mr. Bermenseder’s “Physical Consciousness in a Self-conscious Quantum Universe” in this issue of JCER. My point is that any attempt to explain human consciousness which focuses exclusively upon the scientific method for the understanding of consciousness—simply ignoring both the consciousness of the “self” and the origin of the consciousness of the “self” in the ‘movement’ of self-reflection—simply does not fulfill the requirements set out by Thomas Kuhn in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.

Commentary on David Sahner’s “Human Consciousness and Selfhood” (by Nils J. Nilsson): Abstract: This is my brief Commentary on David Sahner’s “Human Consciousness and Selfhood: Potential Underpinnings and Compatibility with Artificial Complex Systems” in recent issue of JCER. My main point is that if a rich sensorium and extensive experiences are required for consciousness, machines will have, at least, those necessary conditions no less than humans do.

Physical Consciousness in a Self-conscious Quantum Universe (by Tony Bermanseder): Abstract: What is this thing called consciousness? Is it a thing created by the brain, which then in some mysterious manner relates to what sentient beings term mind or awareness or cognitive sensory perception or some other labels of individuated or culturally encompassed nomenclature? The holistic scientist knows that the many labelings can be rather confusing and so he/she chooses to call physical 'Consciousness' as something closely associated with the concept of energy. The concept of energy however relates to transformation of something, say in processes definable in ideas of motion, position, momentum and general dynamics. If the materialistic scientist now measures energy, this energy will somehow be engaged in a transmutational process. Otherwise, no motion would be possible. This essay is about first principles and causes which not only caused the universe of the relativity to manifest in energy but also allowed a form of angular acceleration or 'space-awareness' to give birth to the universal and ubiquitous physical consciousness itself.

Towards A New Paradigm of Consciousness (by Michael Cecil): Abstract: The following essay postulates the existence of a non-spatial—and, thus, species non-specific—3rd dimension of consciousness beyond the consciousness of the “self” and the ‘thinker’; a dimension of consciousness within the context of which the current paradigm of the (‘classical’) “science of consciousness” is to be understood as a ‘special case’ (focusing exclusively upon the consciousness of the ‘thinker’) of a more all-inclusive description of consciousness based upon the acknowledgement of three rather than only one dimension of consciousness. This description of consciousness extends the range of applicability of the ‘classical’ “science of consciousness” to Jungian psychology and, for example, animal presentiment and telepathy.

Between-Two: On the Borderline of Being & Time (by Gregory M. Nixon): Abstract: The purpose of this review article is to attempt to come to grips with the elusive vision of Gordon Globus, especially as revealed in this, his latest book. However, one can only grip that which is tangible and solid and Globus’s marriage of Heideggerian anti-concepts and “quantum neurophilosophy” seems purposefully to evade solidity or grasp. This slippery anti-metaphysics is sometimes a curse for the reader seeking imagistic or conceptual clarity, but, on the other hand, it is also the blessing that allows Globus to go far beyond (or deep within) the usual narrative explanations at the frontiers of physics, even that of the quantum variety.

Nonlinear Theory of Elementary Particles: III. The Mass Origin Theories ( by Alexander G. Kyriakos): Abstract: Three hypotheses of the mass origin are examined: two theories of mass, developed within the framework of electromagnetic theory of matter, and third theory - Higgs's mechanism of the mass generation of Standard Model. The advantages and disadvantages of each of them are shown. The connections between these three approaches and nonlinear theory of elementary particles are also noted.

Logic and Probability (by Gunn Quznetsov): Abstract: The propositional logic is generalized on the real numbers field. The logical function with all properties of the classical probability function is obtained. The logical analog of the Bernoulli independent tests scheme is constructed. The logical analog of the Large Number Law is deduced from properties of these functions.

Causality is inconsistent with quantum field theory (by Fred A. Wolf): Abstract: It is shown that the usual quantum field theoretical argument for the vanishing of the commutator (VC) for spacelike separated fields implying causality is not tenable. For VC to be tenable negative energy antiparticles traveling forward in time must exist and negative energy particles traveling backward in time are not allowed. Hence VC denies the existence of positive energy antiparticles.

Non-local Compton Wave in Holographic Universe (by Czeslaw Hlawiczka): Abstract: The Compton wavelength is quantum information which is also non-local and interferes with each other and may create a holographic background of the quantum events which we know as the vacuum. An observer moves through this information background which is atemporal by a nature.

The Cyclotron Note Books (by Philip E. Gibbs): Abstract: The cyclotron note books are a collection of essays about fundamental physics and metaphysics. The central essay is about the principle of event-symmetric space-time, a new theory about how to do quantum gravity. The style is more technical in some parts than in others. Each essay can be read independently but if you find that one of them has terms which you don't understand you may find them explained in an earlier one. The later ones may be too difficult for the layman and even I don't understand the last one.

Energy Is Conserved in the Classical Theory of General Relativity (by Philip E. Gibbs): Abstract: The first law of thermodynamics states that energy is conserved. It is one of the most fundamental laws of physics and not one that you would expect many physicists to challenge, so it comes as a surprise to find that a growing number of cosmologists and relativists are doing just that. Of course any law of physics is subject to experimental verification and as new realms of observation are opened up we should require that previous assumptions including conservation of energy are checked. But the subject under question is not new physics in this sense. It is the classical theory of general relativity. Whether general relativity is correct is not the issue, although it has withstood all experimental tests so far. The question concerns whether energy is conserved in the classical theory of general relativity with or without cosmological constant as given be Einstein nearly 100 years ago. This is a purely mathematical question.

An Interpretation of the Laws of Gravity and Inertia (by Giuliano Bettini): Abstract: The ideas of fixed stars as source of inertia were discuss in physics from Mach onwards. Maxwell-like equations for gravitation and inertia were obtained by several authors as subspecies of the simplified theory of General Relativity. In this regard, Dennis Sciama’s work was a precursor. Through introduction of a four-potential, I derive here a simple tentative interpretation of the laws about gravity and inertia in complete analogy with electromagnetism. A four-potential is usually not introduced in classical mechanics. As it is shown here, the field produced by this four-potential describes both gravitational and inertial forces. The physical presence of this field associated with this four-potential seems to be a fact even more concrete the usual admission of inertial "fictitious forces".

Time Paradox, Zitterbewegung and Noncommutative Geometry (by Lawrence B. Crowell): Abstract: The zitterbewgung of the electron is associated with an intrinsic time for an electron, or any of the fermionic particles with mass such as quarks and leptons. In this article it is shown that a massless particle coupled to noncommutative coordinate geometry is subjected to a gauge-like force. This force acts to trap the massless particle in an orbit within a region. This bottled massless particle then has an induced mass. This is then argued to be tied to fundamental aspects of physics, such as a dynamical Higgs model, as well as strings and p-brane theory.

Perspectives towards the Interpretation of Physical Space as a Medium of Immediate Quantum Information Transfer (by Davide Fiscaletti, Amrit S. Sorli): Abstract: The space-time manifold characteristic of special relativity cannot be considered the basic arena of physical processes. Quantum non-locality introduces the possibility that the space-time manifold emerges from a more fundamental level of physical space. Here a new interpretation of quantum non-locality is suggested, which is based on a symmetrized quantum potential approach. On the basis of this interpretation, at a fundamental level, space functions as an immediate information medium between subatomic particles and it is possible to interpret in a correct and appropriate way both the forward time and the time reverse of the same quantum process; as a consequence of this interpretation, time exists only as a coordinate measuring the numerical order of material motions. A parallelism with the background of general relativity and quantum gravity is made. Finally, a symmetrized extension of Wheeler-DeWitt equation is suggested.

Covariant Energy-Momentum Conservation in General Relativity with Cosmological Constant (by Philip E. Gibbs: Abstract: A covariant formula for conserved currents of energy, momentum and angular-momentum is derived from a general form of Noether’s theorem applied directly to the Einstein-Hilbert action of classical general relativity. Energy conservation in closed and flat big-bang cosmologies including cosmic radiation and dark energy is discussed as special cases. Special care is taken to distinguish between kinematic and dynamic expressions.

A White Hole Model of the Big Bang (by Philip E. Gibbs: Abstract: A model of the universe as a very large white hole provides a useful alternative inhomogeneous theory to pit against the homogeneous standard FLRW big bang models. The white hole would have to be sufficiently large that we can fit comfortably inside the event horizon at the present time, so that the inhomogeneities of space-time are not in contradiction with current observational limits. A specific Lemaître-Tolman model of a spherically symmetric non-rotating white hole with a few adjustable parameters is investigated. Comparison of calculated anisotropy in the Hubble flow and the CMB against observational limits constrain the parameter space. A Copernican principle would require that we are not too near the centre of the white hole. As an additional constraint this predicts a value of W0 between 0.9999 and 1.

The Great Divide That Separates Humans from Animals (by Roger Cook): Abstract: This paper explores the implications for time and consciousness that derive from the fact that animals live their lives locked into the present. This would seem to make language and consciousness logically impossible for non-human animals. The second section explores the implications that arise from the theory of evolution, and concludes that it is very unlikely awareness of time could have been generated in animals during evolution by natural, or artificial, selection.

‘Conventional time t’ versus ‘Rhythmic Time T’ (Two Faces of One Mystery) [by Peter Beamish]: Abstract: Here is described a second form of time. Here, it is also suggested that ‘ALL (real) TIME IS NOW TIME,’ otherwise past and future temporal concepts of the two types are scalar labels called ‘Conventional timetags’ and ‘Rhythmic Timetags.’ Additionally one’s mind is described by a new, seemingly important, dynamic concept called an ‘Essos’ (pronounced Eee-sos) and containing both one’s ‘Conventional Now’ and one’s ‘Rhythm Based Now.’ It is suggested that we use an upper case ‘TIME’ for the sum of these two mental concepts. Described also is the seemingly very important ‘Mental Vector Process’ or ‘MVP’ which appears as the Most Valuable Player, for all living organisms, in The Game of Life. The book preparation, entitled Dancing With Nature, from which this paper is a highly edited form, suggests the merging of the science of physics with the sciences of biophysics and biochemistry.

Eminent Entities: Short Accounts of Some Major Thinkers in Consciousness Studies (by Peter Hankins): Abstract: I run a blog entitled “Conscious Entities” at which is devoted to short discussions of some of the major thinkers and theories about consciousness. This is another small collection of my writings on consciousness which the editor of JCER very kindly selected to appear here. It contains my short accounts of six major thinkers in consciousness studies including Daniel Dennet, John Searle, David Chalmers, Colin McGinn, Roger Penrose & Gerald Edelman. In reading the books of these writers, I found I had views which were very clear, but also completely contradictory; so these pieces are written in the form of dialogues between a character I call Bitbucket (represented by the abacus) who is a hard-line materialist computational reductionist, and Blandula (the cherub) who leans towards dualism and mysterianism. (The last few words of each article, by the way, are actually quotes from the subject himself.)

Consciousness, Mind and Matter in Indian Philosophy (by Syamala Hari): Abstract: I am very impressed by the striking similarity of concepts in the Guest Editorial by G. M. Nixon in JCER V1(6) to those of ancient Indian Philosophy on thought, time, and Consciousness. I drew only a few examples from the article to depict the similarity but I am impressed by the elegancy of expression and profoundness of concepts in the whole article.

Consciousness, Mind and Matter in Indian Philosophy (by Syamala Hari): Abstract: Consciousness and its relation to the physical body were thoroughly analyzed in the Indian philosophy of ancient times. This philosophy contains many concepts which can lead to scientific answers to some of the questions that brain scientists and modern consciousness researchers are concerned with. In Indian philosophical literature thought is often described as being very fast and one that never comes to stop. Properties of thought described in this literature are very similar to those of faster-than-light objects, known as tachyons in modern physics. It will be possible to describe mental processes and interaction of mind with ordinary matter, in the terminology of mathematics and physics and quantum mechanics in particular, by means of a theory based on this philosophy’s concept that mind consists of superluminal objects.

Consciousness, Lack of Imagination & Samapatti (by Alan J. Oliver): Abstract: Let me say from the outset that in all of the material written on the issue of consciousness I have found little, if anything at all, about the presence of imagination and what part it might play in a discourse about consciousness. In view of the ubiquitous nature of imagination, at least for most people, this is hardly surprising. For people like me, lacking that faculty, it is quite a different story. Over a lifetime trying to understand why most people find the way I think a bit odd, autistic even, I have had to find my own answers, only to find that what the absence of an imagination can provide as an answer for me just deepens the puzzle.

Interactions among Minds/Brains: Individual Consciousness and Inter-subjectivity in Dual-Aspect Framework (by Ram L. Pandey Vimal)

Abstract: Previously in (Vimal, 2010a), we argued that: (i) it is necessary to link experience and function aspect of consciousness with the related structure or neural correlate(s) of consciousness (NCC); and (ii) non-conscious experiences are equivalent to relevant proto-experiences at various levels because both are precursors of conscious subjective experiences aspect of consciousness. Here, in terms of dual-aspect dual-mode PE-SE (proto-experience/subjective experience) framework (Vimal, 2008b, 2010d), we argue as follows: (I) Non-experiential consciousness is a part of functional aspect of consciousness and consciousness is more fundamental than experience because experiences and functions are two aspects of consciousness. (II) Therefore, one could argue for the continuum of consciousness, experience, and function. (III) The origin of individual consciousness could be a ‘universal background of awareness’ that is equivalent to virtual reservoir (where potential SEs are stored in superposed form, and a specific SE is selected via matching process) in the PE-SE framework. The interaction between zombies is relational but it would not lead to an individual consciousness in each zombie. The origin of intersubjective consciousness is the interaction between individual consciousnesses, i.e., interaction between ‘I’, ‘you’, and ‘she/he/it’, i.e., interactions between minds/brains and their environments. (IV) A specific SE is selected during matching process and conscious experience constructs the perception or SE of external objects. (V) The dual-aspect dual-mode PE-SE framework is consistent with classical double-aspectism in the sense of inseparability of mental and physical aspect, whereas it is consistent with double-perspectivism in the sense that the mental aspect is known via first person perspective and the physical aspect is known via third person perspective. (VI) Our conventional reality is subject inclusive or mind dependent reality (MDR), whereas the subject exclusive or mind independent reality (MIR) remains always unknown even in so called samadhi state of mind that claims to have direct perception (or consciousness as such), which may or may not be close to MIR. (VII) The hard problems are Types 1-3 explanatory gaps: Type-1 explanatory gap is how can SEs emerge from non-experiential matter (emergentism) or identical with respective neural states (identity hypothesis of Type-B materialism)? Type-2 is how can SEs pre-exist? And Type-3 is how can physicists claim that MDR is MIR? The hard problem of panexperientialism is how can experiences create the matter of mind independent reality? (VIII) The predictive behavior (developmental rhythmic call and response behavior) and then existential crisis contribute towards the emergence of consciousness. On the basis of evolution, (a) individual consciousness in rudimentary form might have occurred about 540 mya during Cambrian explosion, (b) symbolic, language-using, Homo sapiens (tribal-centric consciousness ) emerged at around 150 kya, and (iii) self-centric or object-centric consciousness might have emerged at around 10 kya. (IX) (a) The existential crisis, biological crisis, and predictive behavior can be interpreted as the motivation/cause of the formation of appropriate neural-networks, and (b) self (SE of subject) occurred in brain when self-related neural-network were formed and necessary ingredients of consciousness were satisfied. (c) The co-evolution and co-development (neural Darwinism) of mind and brain and the dual-aspect-dual-mode PE-SE framework are necessary in a complementary manner for physicalism and panexperientialism. Inter-subjectivity can modulate the attributes of already created/occurred individual-self in self-related neural-network.

About Consciousness (by Peter Hankins): Abstract: I run a blog entitled “Conscious Entities” at which is devoted to short discussions of some of the major thinkers and theories about consciousness. This paper is a small collection of my writings on consciousness which the editor of JCER very kindly selected to appear here. The first section illustrates the wide range of different ways in which people have defined consciousness. The second section sets out my personal diagnosis of the problem - which in fact I have called ‘3½ Problems’ – those of qualia, intentionality, moral responsibility, and relevance (with relevance and intentionality overlapping a bit, hence the ½). The third section sets out my answers which, perhaps disappointingly, is called ‘1½ Answers’. The last section briefly introduces my blog Conscious Entities.

The Philosophy of Mysticism: Perennialism and Constructivism (by Randolph T Dible II)

Abstract: The encountering of the experiencer or observer—transcendental subjectivity itself—at the foundation of the world leads inevitably to the recognition of pure objectivity as ultimate reality (which can be taken as its ultimate deconstruction, analogous to the apophatic or via negativa), from which objects derive their value, weight, significance, meaning or objectivity. In this way, pure objectivity can be seen as the supra-self-evident Axiological Axiom, so to speak, even Unconditional Love, in romantic terms. This axiology (value theory) has a structure inverse to the relationship between transcendental subjectivity as the radical unity of pure self-reference and on the other hand, the world of forms, as mere traces (representations, indications) of the unique, original “first distinction” Spencer-Brown speaks of at the foundation of his calculus. That is, all forms (i.e., distinctions, differences) would reduce to being the first distinction, also known as the marked state, which I call penultimate reality (pure self-reference or transcendental subjectivity: the Spirit which animates us), except that forms are complimentary to their content, which is their objectivity or value, which would reduce to the unmarked state or ultimate reality. It is the incongruity of form (thoughts; Whitehead’s “negative prehensions”) and value (feelings; Whitehead’s “positive prehensions,” or my notion of objectivity, meaning and qualia; in short, the non-formal aspects of experience) that holds forms open and keeps them from absolute reduction. This accounts for the brute, concrete persistence of the “functional illusion”-- to use a term from Dzogchen Buddhism-- of the world. Thus this system has an axiology of metaphysical objectivity grounded on the ideal of pure objectivity as the source of all value, meaning and significance, itself the very fecundity of profundity, which is the motive of drawing the distinction in the first place.

Conscious Control of an Electron (by Ronald Bryan)

Abstract: I consider the possibility that the electron, not a human observer, precipitates the collapse of the electron's wavefunction when it is detected. This would seem to endow the electronic wavefunction with an elementary consciousness. If so, then perhaps a human consciousness could interact with the electronic consciousness to flip its spin. I propose an experiment to test this possibility, namely one in which the electron is the single valence electron of a magnesium ion immersed in a 50-gauss magnetic field. A dye laser shines on the ion and is tuned to bring about laser induced fluorescence (LIF) at a wavelength of 280 nm. The LIF is so strong that if the ion were shining in the visible range, it could be seen with the naked eye. Instead it is shining in the near ultra-violet, and a photomultiplier is used to detect the light. If a person can now lower the electron's energy minutely, then this will flip the electron's spin and the LIF will cease. If the person can succeed in flipping the electron's spin once again by raising its energy, then LIF is restored. By initiating LIF for long and short periods, such a person could send a lengthy International Morse Code message which could be read by anyone observing the ion’s output. We would see if a person succeeding in this task could send a message from increasingly distant points. If so, then the person's control could not be mediated by any fields currently known to physicists: electromagnetic, weak, strong, and gravitational. We would hypothesize a new kind of controlling field which does not weaken with distance, nor be attenuated by obstructions. Such a field might mediate distant healing and remote viewing. It might be identified with Chinese qi. We hypothesize that this conjectured field propagates in higher dimensional space-time to avoid obstructions, and converges on the target to avoid weakening. In this space, the field might travel faster than light does in the lower four dimensions of space and time.

Representational Qualia Theory (by Brent Allsop)

Abstract: I believe there is one theory that deserves much more press than it is receiving. This is a representational theory where there is, what I call a “spirit world” produced by our brain, made of phenomenal “qualia” (singular quale) that is everything we consciously know. There doesn’t seem to be any popular books or articles on consciousness that even consider anything like this theory, nor any of its implications. Given that representational theories of consciousness have been around since Descartes and before it’s surprising to me that at least something like this doesn’t receive more consideration.

Our Ability to Research Comes Before Understanding of What We Research (by Dainis Zeps): Abstract: Impact of quantum mechanics on physical science epistemology and science at all is considered. We consider methodolically idea that science doesn’t research its assumed objects but the ability to research, thus making itself not distinguishable from the cognitive science in the most general sense. Next idea is that what we discover firstly are the methods and the technologies understanding about which may come (if at all) much much later after we have learned to use these technologies in our life up to incredible level. Instrumentality rather than objectivity should be researched in science. In this sense quantum mechanical impact on sciences should be assessed. Using this key, approach to quantum consciousness should be inquired.

Observer Is a Function of Four-dimensional Timeless Space (by Amrit S. Sorli, Tadej Gregl, Dusan Klinar)

Abstract: Recent research on time shows that one has to distinguish between physical time and psychological time. Physical time is run of clocks in space. Space itself is timeless. With clocks we measure material change i.e. motion that happen in space. Linear psychological time “past-present-future” is a result of neuronal activity of the brain. Observer is experiencing material change through psychological time. Observer is unchangeable and independent of psychological time running. This indicates that observer is not based on neuronal activity of the brain as psychological time is. Space and observer are both timeless. Here a proposal is taken that physical basis of the observer is space itself. In scientific exploration the process of observation is the function of space. Hypothetically every point of space has the function of observation. Human senses and brain are biological devices through which space experiences material change i.e. motion in space. Observer as a function of space is an integral part of the universe. This view opens new perspectives in understanding of Lorentz transformation and “proper time” of different inertial systems in Special Theory of Relativity.

What Is Consciousness and Where Is It (by Dick W. Richardson)

Abstract: What is consciousness? It is the mean by which that which I do not know and do not understand makes me aware of it, know it, and come to understand it. And then I can say ‘I KNOW’. Maybe that makes two of us when that is done, maybe not. Find where consciousness begins. THAT is worth finding and knowing.

TGD Inspired Theory of Consciousness (by Matti Pitkanen)

Abstract: The basic ideas and implications of TGD inspired theory of consciousness are briefly summarized. The notions of quantum jump and self can be unified in the recent formulation of TGD relying on dark matter hierarchy characterized by increasing values of Planck constant. Negentropy Maximization Principle serves as a basic variational principle for the dynamics of quantum jump. The new view about the relation of geometric and subjective time leads to a new view about memory and intentional action. The quantum measurement theory based on finite measurement resolution and realized in terms of hyper-finite factors of type II1 justifies the notions of sharing of mental images and stereo-consciousness deduced earlier on basis of quantum classical correspondence. Qualia reduce to quantum number increments associated with quantum jump. Self-referentiality of consciousness can be understood from quantum classical correspondence implying a symbolic representation of contents of consciousness at space-time level updated in each quantum jump. p-Adic physics provides space-time correlates for cognition and intentionality.

What I Think about Consciousness (by Alan J Oliver)

Abstract: Consciousness is a property of Akashic space to the extent that it has no boundaries. The apprehension of a memory is normally limited to the experience of the individual, and I believe this is a function of Ahamkara, the self-identity of the individual. We are all a memory address code. Memory, in the general sense, is generated by mind and in turn memory influences mind. There is more to it. Memory begins with an event or experience being observed by buddhi. In Yoga Sutra Patanjali describes two kinds of memory. The first is the general kind of memory in which the object of apprehension is primary. The second kind of memory is one in which the instrument and process of apprehension are primary. These distinctions allow me to discriminate between my experience of Samapatti and that of the subject.