Confucian Analects Book X (孔夫子論語: 鄉黨第十) from Administrator's blog

Author: Confucius (孔夫子); translated by James Legge

Even at a meal of coarse rice, or herb broth, or gourds, he made his offering with all reverence.

鄉黨第十 Book X

1. 孔子於鄉黨,恂恂如也,似不能言者。其在宗廟朝廷,便便言,唯謹爾。

Among his own country folk Confucius wore a homely look, like one that has no word to say. In the ancestral temple and at court his speech was full, but cautious.

2. 朝與下大夫言,侃侃如也;與上大夫言,誾誾如也。君在,踧踖如也,與與如也。

At court he talked frankly to men of low rank, winningly to men of high rank. When the king was there, he looked intent and solemn.

3. 君召使擯,色勃如也。足躩如也,揖所與立,左右手,衣前後,襜如也。趨進,翼如 也。賓退,必復命,曰:「賓不顧矣。」

When the king bade him receive guests, his face seemed to change and his legs to bend. He bowed left and right to those beside him, straightened his robes in front and behind, and swept forward, with arms spread like wings. When the guest had left, he brought back word, saying, The guest is no longer looking.

4. 入公門,鞠躬如也,如不容。立不中門,行不履閾。過位,色勃如也,足躩如也,其 言似不足者。攝齊升堂,鞠躬如也,屏氣似不息者。出,降一等,逞顏色,怡怡如也;沒階趨進,翼如也;復其位,踧踖如也。

As he went in at the palace gate he stooped, as though it were too low for him. He did not stand in the middle of the gate, or step on the threshold. When he passed the throne, his face seemed to change and his legs to bend: he spake with bated breath. As he went up the hall to audience, he lifted his robes, bowed his back, and masked his breathing till it seemed to stop. As he came down, he relaxed his face below the first step and looked pleased. From the foot of the steps he swept forward with arms spread like wings; and when he was back in his seat, he looked intent as before.

5. 執圭,鞠躬如也;如不勝。上如揖,下如授,勃如戰色,足縮縮如有循。享禮有容色, 私覿愉愉如也。

When he carried the sceptre, his back bent, as under too heavy a burden; he lifted it no higher than in bowing and no lower than in making a gift. His face changed, as it will with fear, and he dragged his feet, as though they were fettered. When he offered his present his manner was formal; but at the private audience he was cheerful.

6. 君子不以以紺緅飾,紅紫不以為褻服;當暑,袗絺綌,必表而出之。緇衣羔裘,素衣麑 裘,黃衣狐裘。褻裘長,短右袂。必有寢衣,長一身有半。狐貉之厚以居。去喪無所不佩。非帷裳,必殺之。羔裘玄冠,不以弔。吉月,必朝服而朝。

The gentleman was never decked in violet or mauve; even at home he would not wear red or purple. In hot weather he wore an unlined linen gown, but always over other clothes. With lamb-skin he wore black, with fawn, white, and with fox-skin, yellow. At home he wore a long fur gown, with the right sleeve short. His nightgown was always half as long again as his body. In the house he wore thick fur, of fox or badger. When he was not in mourning there was nothing missing from his girdle. Except for sacrificial dress, he was sparing of stuff. He did not wear lamb's fur, or a black cap, on a mourning visit. At the new moon he always put on court dress and went to court.

7. 齊,必有明衣布。齊,必變食。居,必遷坐。

On his days of abstinence he always wore linen clothes of a pale colour; and he changed his food and moved from his wonted seat.

8. 食不厭精,膾不厭細。食饐而餲,魚餒而肉敗不食,色惡不食,臭惡不食,失飪不食, 不時不食,割不正不食,不得其醬不食。肉雖多,不使勝食氣。惟酒無量,不及亂。沽酒,市脯,不食。不撤薑食。不多食。祭於公,不宿肉。祭肉,不出三日;出三日,不食之矣。食不語,寢不言。雖疏食,菜羹,瓜祭,必齊如也。

He did not dislike well-cleaned rice or hash chopped small. He did not eat sour or mouldy rice, bad fish, or tainted flesh. He did not eat anything that had a bad colour or that smelt bad, or food that was badly cooked or out of season. Food that was badly cut or served with the wrong sauce he did not eat. However much flesh there might be, it could not conquer his taste for rice. To wine alone he set no limit, but he did not drink enough to muddle him. He did not drink bought wine, or eat ready-dried market meat. He never went without ginger at a meal. He did not eat much. After a sacrifice at the palace he did not keep the flesh over-night. He never kept sacrificial flesh more than three days. If it had been kept longer it was not eaten. He did not talk at meals, nor speak when he was in bed.

Even at a meal of coarse rice, or herb broth, or gourds, he made his offering with all reverence.

9. 席不正不坐。 If his mat was not straight, he would not sit down.

10. 鄉人飲酒,杖者出,斯出矣。鄉人儺,朝服而立於阼階。

When the villagers were drinking wine, as those that walked with a staff left, he left too. At the village exorcisms he put on court dress and stood on the east steps.

11. 問人於他邦,再拜而送之。康子饋藥,拜而受之,曰:「丘未達,不敢嘗。」

When sending a man with enquiries to another land, he bowed twice to him and saw him out. When K'ang gave him some drugs, he bowed, accepted them, and said, I have never taken them; I dare not taste them.

12. 廄焚,子退朝,曰:「傷人乎?」不問馬。

On coming back from court after his stables had been burnt, the Master said, Is anyone hurt? He did not ask about the horses.

13. 君賜食,必正席先嘗之。君賜腥,必熟而薦之。君賜生,必畜之。侍食於君,君祭先 飯。疾君視之,東首,加朝服拖紳。君命召,不俟駕行矣。

When the king sent him cooked meat, he put his mat straight, and tasted it first; when he sent him raw flesh, he had it cooked, and offered it to the spirits; when he sent him a live beast, he kept it alive. When he ate in attendance on the king, the king made the offering, he tasted things first. When he was sick and the king came to see him, he lay with his head to the east, with his court dress over him and his girdle across it. When he was called by the king's bidding, he walked, without waiting for his carriage.

14. 入大廟,每事問。

On going into the Great Temple he asked about everything.

15. 朋友死,無所歸,曰:「於我殯。」朋友之饋,雖車馬,非祭肉,不拜。

When a friend died, who had no home to go to, he said, It is for me to bury him. When friends sent him anything, even a carriage and horses, he never bowed, unless the gift was sacrificial flesh.

16. 寢不尸,居不容。見齊衰者,雖狎必變。見冕者與瞽者,雖褻必以貌。凶服者式之; 式負版者,有盛饌,必變色而作。迅雷風烈必變。

He did not sleep like a corpse. At home he unbent. Even if he knew him well, his face changed when he saw a mourner. Even when he was in undress, if he saw anyone in full dress, or a blind man, he looked grave. To men in deep mourning and to the census-bearers he bowed over the cross-bar. Before choice meats he rose with changed look. At sharp thunder, or a fierce wind, his look changed.

17. 升車,必正立執綏。車中不內顧,不疾言,不親指。

When mounting his carriage he stood straight and grasped the cord. When he was in it, he did not look round, or speak fast, or point.

18. 色斯舉矣,翔而後集。曰:「山梁雌雉,時哉時哉!」子路共之,三嗅而作。

Seeing a man's face, she rose, flew round and settled. The Master said, Hen pheasant on the ridge, it is the season, it is the season. Tzu-lu went towards her: she sniffed thrice and rose.

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