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Author: Confucius (孔夫子); translated by James Legge

1. 子曰:「為政以德,譬如北辰,居其所而眾星共之。」

The Master said, He that rules by mind is like the north star, steady in his seat, whilst the stars all bend to him.

2. 子曰:「詩三百,一言以蔽之,曰:思無邪。」

The Master said, The three hundred poems are summed up in the one line, Think no evil.

3. 子曰:「道之以政,齊之以刑,民免而無恥;道之以德,齊之以禮,有恥且格。」

The Master said, Guide the people by law, aline them by punishment; they may shun crime, but they will want shame. Guide them by mind, aline them by courtesy; they will learn shame and grow good.

4. 子曰:「吾十有五而志于學,三十而立,四十而不惑,五十而知天命,六十而耳順,七 十而從心所欲,不踰矩。」

The Master said, At fifteen, I had the will to learn; at thirty, I could stand; at forty, I had no doubts; at fifty, I understood the heavenly Bidding; at sixty, my ears were opened; at seventy, I could do as my heart lusted without trespassing from the square.

5. 孟懿子問孝。子曰:「無違。」樊遲御,子告之曰:「孟孫問孝於我,我對曰,『無 違。』」樊遲曰:「何謂也?」子曰:「生,事之以禮;死,葬之以禮,祭之以禮。」

Meng Yi asked the duty of a son. The Master said, Not to transgress. As Fan Chi'ih was driving him, the Master said, Meng-sun asked me the duty of a son; I answered, Not to transgress. What did ye mean? said Fan Chi'ih. To serve our father and mother with courtesy whilst they live; to bury them with courtesy when they die, and to worship them with courtesy.

6. 孟武伯問孝。子曰:「父母唯其疾之憂。」

Meng Wu asked the duty of a son. The Master said, He should not grieve his father and mother by anything but illness.

7. 子游問孝。子曰:「今之孝者,是謂能養。至於犬馬,皆能有養;不敬,何以別乎。」

Tzu-yu asked the duty of a son. The Master said, He that can feed his parents is now called a good son. But both dogs and horses are fed, and unless we honour our parents, what is the difference?

8. 子夏問孝。子曰:「色難。有事,弟子服其勞;有酒食,先生饌,曾是以為孝乎?」

Tzu-hsia asked the duty of a son. The Master said, Our manner is the hard part. For the young to be a stay in toil and leave the wine and food to their elders, is this to fulfill their duty?

9. 子曰:「吾與回言終日,不違如愚。退而省其私,亦足以發,回也不愚。」

The Master said, If I talk all day to Hui, like a dullard, he never differs from me. But when he is gone, if I watch him when alone, he can carry out what I taught. No, Hui is no dullard!

10. 子曰:「視其所以,觀其所由,察其所安。人焉廋哉?人焉廋哉?」 The Master said, See what he does; watch what moves him; search what pleases him: can the man lie hidden? Can the man lie hidden?

11. 子曰:「溫故而知新,可以為師矣。」 The Master said, To keep old knowledge warm and get new makes the teacher.

12. 子曰:「君子不器。」

The Master said, A gentleman is not a vessel.

13. 子貢問君子。子曰:「先行其言,而後從之。」

Tzu-kung asked, What is a gentleman? The Master said, He puts words into deeds first, and follows these up with words.

14. 子曰:「君子周而不比,小人比而不周。」

The Master said, A gentleman is broad and fair; the small man takes sides and is narrow.

15. 子曰:「學而不思則罔,思而不學則殆。」

The Master said, Learning without thought is naught; thought without learning is dangerous.

16. 子曰:「攻乎異端,斯害也己。」

The Master said, To fight strange doctrines does harm.

17. 子曰:「由!誨女知之乎!知之為知之,不知為不知,是知也。」

The Master said, Yu, shall I teach thee what is wisdom? To know what we know, and know what we do not know, is wisdom.

18. 子張學干祿。子曰:「多聞闕疑,慎言其餘,則寡尤。多見闕殆,慎行其餘,則寡 悔。言寡尤,行寡悔,祿在其中矣。」

Tsu-chang learned with an eye to pay. The Master said, Hear much, leave all that is doubtful alone, speak warily of everything else, and few will be offended. See much, leave all that is dangerous alone, deal warily with everything else, and thou wilt have little to rue. If thy words seldom give offence, and thy deeds leave little to rue, pay will follow.

19. 哀公問曰:「何為則民服?」孔子對曰:「舉直錯諸枉,則民服;舉枉錯諸直,則民 不 服。」

Duke Ai asked, What should I do to win the people? Confucius answered, Lift up the straight, put away the crooked; and the people will be won. Lift up the crooked, put away the straight; and the people will not be won.

20. 季康子問:「使民敬忠以勸,如之何?」子曰:「臨之以莊則敬,孝慈則忠,舉善而 教不能則勸。」

Chi K'ang asked how to make the people lowly, faithful and painstaking. The Master said, Meet them with dignity, they will be lowly; be a good son and merciful, they will be faithful; lift up the good and teach the unskilled, and they will take pains.

21. 或謂孔子曰:「子奚不為政?」子曰:「書云:『孝乎惟孝,友于兄弟,施於有 政。』是亦為政,奚其為為政?」

One said to Confucius, Why do ye not govern, Sir? The Master said, What does the Book say of a good son? 'To be a good son and a friend to thy brothers is to show how to govern.' This, too, is to govern. Must one be in office to govern?

22. 子曰:「人而無信,不知其可也。大車無輗,小車無軏,其何以行之哉?」

The Master said, A man without truth, I know not what good he is! A cart without a crosspole, a carriage without a yoke, how can they be moved?

23. 子張問:「十世可知也?」子曰:「殷因於夏禮,所損益可知也;周因於殷禮,所損 益可知也。其或繼周者,雖百世,可知也。」

Tzu-chang asked whether we can know what is to be ten generations hence. The Master said, The Yin took over the manners of the Hsia; the harm and the good that they did them can be known. The Chou took over the manners of the Yin; the harm and the good that they did them can be known. And we may know what shall be, even an hundred generations hence, whoever follows Chou.

24. 子曰:「非其鬼而祭之,諂也。見義不為,無勇也。」

The Master said, To worship the ghosts of men not akin to us is fawning. To see the right and not do it is want of courage.

Confucian Analects Book IV [孔夫子論語: 里仁第四] (translated by James Legge)

1. 子曰:「里仁為美。擇不處仁,焉得知?」

The Master said, Love makes a spot beautiful: who chooses not to dwell in love, has he got wisdom?

2. 子曰:「不仁者,不可以久處約,不可以長處樂。仁者安仁,知者利仁。」

The Master said, Loveless men cannot bear need long, they cannot bear fortune long. Loving men find peace in love, the wise find profit in it.

3. 子曰:「惟仁者,能好人,能惡人。」

The Master said, Love alone can love others, or hate others.

4. 子曰:「苟志於仁矣,無惡也。」

The Master said, A will set on love is free from evil.

5. 子曰:「富與貴,是人之所欲也,不以其道得之,不處也。貧與賤,是人之惡也,不以 其道得之,不去也。君子去仁,惡乎成名。君子無終食之間違仁,造次必於是,顛沛必於是。」

The Master said, Wealth and honours are what men desire; but do not go from the Way, to keep them. Lowliness and want are hated by men; but do not go from the Way, to escape them. Shorn of love, is a gentleman worthy of the name? Not for one moment may a gentleman sin against love; he must not do so in flurry and haste, nor do so in utter overthrow.

6. 子曰:「我未見好仁者,惡不仁者。好仁者,無以尚之;惡不仁者,其為仁矣,不使不 仁者加乎其身。有能一日用其力於仁矣乎?我未見力不足者。蓋有之矣,我未之見也。」

The Master said, I have seen no one that loves love and hates uncharity. He that loves love will set nothing higher. The hater of uncharity is so given to love that no uncharity can enter into his life. If a man were to give his strength to love for one day, I have seen no one whose strength would fail him. There may be such men, but I have not seen one.

7. 子曰:「人之過也,各於其黨。觀過,斯知仁矣。」

The Master said, A man and his faults are of a piece. By watching his faults we learn whether love be his.

8. 子曰:「朝聞道,夕死可矣!」

The Master said, To learn the Way at daybreak and die at eve were enough.

9. 子曰:「士志於道,而恥惡衣惡食者,未足與議也!」

The Master said, A knight in quest of the Way, who is ashamed of bad clothes and bad food, it is idle talking to.

10. 子曰:「君子之於天下也,無適也,無莫也,義之於比。」

The Master said, A gentleman has no likes or dislikes below heaven. He follows right.

11. 子曰:「君子懷德,小人懷土;君子懷刑,小人懷惠。」

The Master said, The gentleman cherishes mind, the small man cherishes dirt. Gentlemen trust in the law, the small man trusts in favour.

12. 子曰:「放於利而行,多怨。」

The Master said, The chase of gain is rich in hate.

13. 子曰:「能以禮讓為國乎,何有!不能以禮讓為國,如禮何!」

The Master said, What is it to sway a kingdom by courteous yielding? If we cannot sway a kingdom by courteous yielding, what is our courtesy worth?

14. 子曰:「不患無位,患所以立;不患莫己知,求為可知也。」

The Master said, Care not for want of place; care for thy readiness to fill one. Care not for being unknown, but seek to be worthy of note.

15. 子曰:「參乎!吾道一以貫之。」曾子曰:「唯。」子出。門人問曰:「何謂也?」 曾子曰:「夫子之道,忠恕而已矣。」

The Master said, One line, Shen, runs through my Way. Yes, said Tseng-tzu. After the Master had left, the disciples asked what was meant. Tseng-tzu said, The Master's Way is no more than faithfulness and fellow-feeling.

16. 子曰:「君子喻於義,小人喻於利。」

The Master said, The gentleman is learned in right; the small man is learned in gain.

17. 子曰:「見賢思齊焉,見不賢而內自省也。」

The Master said, At sight of worth, think to grow like it; at sight of baseness, search thyself within.

18. 子曰:「事父母幾諫,見志不從,又敬不違,勞而不怨。」

The Master said, A father or a mother may be gently chidden. If thou seest they have no will to follow thee, be the more lowly, but do not give way; nor murmur at the trouble they give thee.

19. 子曰:「父母在,不遠遊,遊必有方。」

The Master said, Whilst thy father and mother are living, do not wander afar. If thou must travel, hold a set course.

20. 子曰:「三年無改於父之道,可謂孝矣。」

The Master said, He that changes nothing in his father's ways for three years may be called pious.

21. 子曰:「父母之年,不可不知也:一則以喜,一則以懼。」

The Master said, A father and mother's years must be borne in mind; with gladness on the one hand and fear on the other.

22. 子曰:「古者言之不出,恥躬之不逮也。」

The Master said, The men of old were loth to speak, for not to live up to their words would have shamed them.

23. 子曰:「以約失之者,鮮矣。」

The Master said, We shall seldom get lost if we hold to main lines.

24. 子曰:「君子欲訥於言,而敏於行。」

The Master said, A gentleman wishes to be slow to speak and quick to do.

25. 子曰:「德不孤,必有鄰。」

The Master said, A great soul is never friendless: he has always neighbours.

26. 子游曰:「事君數,斯辱矣;朋友數,斯疏矣。」

Tzu-yu said, Nagging at kings brings disgrace, nagging at friends estrangement.

Author: Confucius (孔夫子); translated by James Legge

The Master said, Without good form attentions grow into fussiness, heed becomes fearfulness, daring becomes unruliness, frankness becomes rudeness. When gentlemen are true to kinsfolk, love will thrive among the people; if they do not forsake old friends, the people will not steal.

1. 子曰:「泰伯其可謂至德也已矣。三以天下讓,民無得而稱焉。」

The Master said, T'ai-po may be said to have carried nobility furthest. Thrice he refused all below heaven. Men were at a loss how to praise him.

2. 子曰:「恭而無禮則勞,慎而無禮則葸,勇而無禮則亂,直而無禮則絞。君子篤於親 ,則民興於仁。故舊不遺,則民不偷。」

The Master said, Without good form attentions grow into fussiness, heed becomes fearfulness, daring becomes unruliness, frankness becomes rudeness. When gentlemen are true to kinsfolk, love will thrive among the people; if they do not forsake old friends, the people will not steal.

3. 曾子有疾,召門弟子曰:「啟予足!啟予手!詩云:『戰戰兢兢,如臨深淵,如履薄 冰。』而今而後,吾知免夫!小子!」

When Tseng-tzu lay sick he called his disciples and said, Uncover my feet, uncover my arms. The poem says, As if a deep gulf Were yawning below, As crossing thin ice, Take heed how ye go. My little children, I have known how to keep myself unhurt until now and hereafter.

4. 曾子有疾,孟敬子問之。曾子言曰:「鳥之將死,其鳴也哀;人之將死,其言也善。君 子所貴乎道者三:動容貌,斯遠暴慢矣;正顏色,斯近信矣;出辭氣,斯遠鄙倍矣。籩豆之事,則有司存。」

When Tseng-tzu was sick Meng Ching came to ask after him. Tseng-tzu said, When a bird is dying his notes are sad; when man is dying his words are good. Three branches of the Way are dear to a gentleman: To banish from his bearing violence and disdain; to sort his face to the truth, and to banish from his speech what is low or unseemly. The ritual of chalice and platter has servitors to see to it.

5. 曾子曰:「以能問於不能,以多問於寡,有若無,實若虛,犯而不校,昔者吾友,嘗從 事於斯矣。」

Tseng-tzu said, When we can, to ask those that cannot; when we are more, to ask those that are less; having, to seem wanting; real, to seem shadow; when gainsaid, never answering back; I had a friend once that could do thus.

6. 曾子曰:「可以託六尺之孤,可以寄百里之命,臨大節而不可奪也,君子人與,君子人 也。」

Tseng-tzu said, A man to whom an orphan, a few feet high, or the fate of an hundred towns, may be entrusted, and whom no crisis can corrupt, is he not a gentleman, a gentleman indeed?

7. 曾子曰:「士不可以不弘毅,任重而道遠。仁以為己任,不亦重乎,死而後已,不亦遠 乎。」

Tseng-tzu said, The knight had need be strong and bold; for his burden is heavy, the way is far. His burden is love, is it not a heavy one? No halt before death, is that not far?

8. 子曰:「興於詩,立於禮,成於樂。」

The Master said, Poetry rouses us, we stand upon courtesy, music is our crown.

9. 子曰:「民可使由之,不可使知之。」

The Master said, The people may be made to follow, we cannot make them understand.

10. 子曰:「好勇疾貧,亂也。人而不仁,疾之已甚,亂也。」

The Master said, Love of daring and hatred of poverty lead to crime; a man without love, if he is sorely harassed, turns to crime.

11. 子曰:「如有周公之才之美,使驕且吝,其餘不足觀也已。」

The Master said, All the comely gifts of the Duke of Chou, coupled with pride and meanness, would not be worth a glance.

12. 子曰:「三年學,不至於穀,不易得也。」

The Master said, A man to whom three years of learning have borne no fruit would be hard to find.

13. 子曰:「篤信好學,守死善道。危邦不人,亂邦不居,天下有道則見,無道則隱。邦 有道,貧且賤焉,恥也,邦無道,富且貴焉,恥也。」

The Master said, A man of simple faith, who loves learning, who guards and betters his way unto death, will not enter a tottering kingdom, nor stay in a lawless land. When all below heaven follows the Way, he is seen; when it loses the Way, he is unseen. While his land keeps the Way, he is ashamed to be poor and lowly; but when his land has lost the Way, wealth and honours shame him.

14. 子曰:「不在其位,不謀其政。」 The Master said, When out of place, discuss not policy.

15. 子曰:「師摯之始,關睢之亂,洋洋乎盈耳哉。」

The Master said, In the first days of the music-master Chih how the hubbub of the Kuan-chü rose sea beyond sea! How it filled the ear!

16. 子曰:「狂而不直,侗而不愿,悾悾而不信,吾不知之矣。」

The Master said, Of men that are zealous, but not straight; dull, but not simple; helpless, but not truthful, I will know nothing.

17. 子曰:「學如不及,猶恐失之。」

The Master said, Learn as though the time were short, like one that fears to lose.

18. 子曰:「巍巍乎,舜禹之有天下也,而不與焉。」

The Master said, How wonderful were Shun and Yü! To have all below heaven was nothing to them!

19. 子曰:「大哉堯之為君也,巍巍乎,唯天為大,唯堯則之,蕩蕩乎,民無能名焉。巍 巍乎,其有成功也,煥乎,其有文章。」

The Master said, How great a lord was Yao! Wonderful! Heaven alone is great; Yao alone was patterned on it. Vast, boundless! Men's words failed them. The wonder of the work done by him! The flame of his art and precepts!

20. 舜有臣五人,而天下治。武王曰:「予有亂臣十人。」孔子曰:「才難,不其然乎, 唐虞之際,於斯為盛,有婦人焉,九人而已。三分天下有其二,以服事殷,周之德,其可謂至德也已矣。」

Shun had five ministers, and there was order below heaven. King Wu said, I have ten uncommon ministers. Confucius said, 'The dearth of talent,' is not that the truth? When Yü followed T'ang the times were rich in talent; yet there were but nine men in all, and one woman. In greatness of soul we may say that Chou was highest: he had two-thirds of all below heaven and bent it to the service of Yin.

21. 子曰:「禹吾無間然矣,菲飲食,而致孝乎鬼神,惡衣服,而致美乎黻冕,卑宮室, 而盡力乎溝洫,禹吾無間然矣。」

The Master said, I see no flaw in Yü. He ate and drank little, yet he was lavish in piety to the ghosts and spirits. His clothes were bad, but in his cap and gown he was fair indeed. His palace buildings were poor, yet he gave his whole strength to dykes and ditches. No kind of flaw can I see in Yü.

Author: Confucius (孔夫子); translated by James Legge

The Master said, Eating coarse rice and drinking water, with bent arm for pillow, we may be merry; but ill-gotten wealth and honours are to me a wandering cloud.

1. 子曰:「述而不作,信而好古,竊比於我老彭。」

The Master said, A teller and not a maker, one that trusts and loves the past; I might liken myself to our old P'eng.

2. 子曰:「默而識之,學而不厭,誨人不倦,何有於我哉?」

The Master said, To think things over in silence, to learn and be always hungry, to teach and never weary; is any of these mine?

3. 子曰:「德之不修,學之不講,聞義不能徒,不善不能改,是吾憂也。」

The Master said, Not making the most of my mind, want of thoroughness in learning, failure to do the right when told it, lack of strength to overcome faults; these are my sorrows.

4. 子之燕居,申申如也,夭夭如也。」

In his free moments the Master was easy and cheerful.

5. 子曰:「甚矣吾衰也!久矣吾不復夢見周公!」

The Master said, How deep is my decay! It is long since I saw the Duke of Chou in a dream.

6. 子曰:「志於道,據於德,依於仁,游於藝。」

The Master said, Keep thy will on the Way, lean on mind, rest in love, move in art.

7. 子曰:「自行束修以上,吾未嘗無誨焉。」

The Master said, From the man that paid in dried meat upwards, I have withheld teaching from no one.

8. 子曰:「不憤不啟,不悱不發。舉一隅不以三隅反,則不復也。」

The Master said, Only to those fumbling do I open, only for those stammering do I find the word. If I lift one corner and the other three are left unturned, I say no more.

9. 子食於有喪者之側,未嘗飽也。子於是日哭,則不歌。

When eating beside a mourner the Master never ate his fill. On days when he had been wailing, he did not sing.

10. 子謂顏淵曰:「用之則行,舍之則藏,惟我與爾有是夫。」子路曰:「子行三軍,則 誰與?」子曰:「暴虎馮河,死而不悔者,吾不與也。必也臨事而懼,好謀而成者也。」

The Master said to Yen Yüan, To go forward when in office and lie quiet when not; only I and thou can do that. Tzu-lu said, If ye had to lead three armies, Sir, whom would ye have with you? No man, said the Master, that would face a tiger bare-fisted, or plunge into a river and die without a qualm; but one, indeed, who, fearing what may come, lays his plans well and carries them through.

11. 子曰:「富而可求也,雖執鞭之士,吾亦為之。如不可求,從吾所好。」

The Master said, If shouldering a whip were a sure road to riches I should turn carter; but since there is no sure road, I tread the path I love.

12. 子之所慎:齊,戰,疾。

The Master gave heed to abstinence, war and sickness.

13. 子在齊聞韶,三月不知肉味,曰:「不圖為樂之至於斯也。」

When he was in Ch'i, for three months after hearing the Shao played, the Master knew not the taste of flesh. I did not suppose, he said, that music could reach such heights.

14. 冉有曰:「夫子為衛君乎?」子貢曰:「諾,吾將問之。」入曰:「伯夷、叔齊何人 也?」曰:「古之賢人也。」曰:「怨乎?」曰:「求仁而得仁,又何怨?」出曰:「夫子不為也。」

Jan Yu said, Is the Master for the lord of Wei? I shall ask him, said Tzu-kung. He went in, and said, What kind of men were Po-yi and Shu-ch'i? Worthy men of yore, said the Master. Did they rue the past? They sought love and found it; what had they to rue? Tzu-kung went out, and said, The Master is not for him.

15. 子曰:「飯疏食,飲水,曲肱而枕之,樂亦在其中矣。不義而富且貴,於我如浮雲。 」

The Master said, Eating coarse rice and drinking water, with bent arm for pillow, we may be merry; but ill-gotten wealth and honours are to me a wandering cloud.

16. 子曰:「加我數年,五十以學易,可以無大過矣。」

The Master said, Given a few more years, making fifty for learning the Yi, I might be freed from gross faults.

17. 子所雅言,詩、書、執禮,皆雅言也。

The Master liked to talk of poetry, history, and the upkeep of courtesy. Of all these he liked to talk.

18. 葉公問孔子於子路,子路不對。子曰:「女奚不曰,其為人也,發憤忘食,樂以忘 憂,不知老之將至云爾。」

The Duke of She asked Tzu-lu about Confucius. Tzu-lu did not answer. The Master said, Why didst thou not say, He is a man that forgets to eat in his eagerness, whose sorrows are forgotten in gladness, who knows not that age draws near?

19. 子曰:「我非生而知之者,好古,敏以求之者也。」

The Master said, I was not born to wisdom: I loved the past, and sought it earnestly there.

20. 子不語怪力亂神。

The Master never talked of goblins, strength, disorder, or spirits.

Author: Confucius (孔夫子); translated by James Legge

1. 子謂公冶長,「可妻也。雖在縲絏之中,非其罪也。」以其子妻之。

Of Kung-yeh Ch'ang the Master said, A girl might be wedded to him. Though he has been in fetters that was not his crime. He gave him his daughter to wed.

2. 子謂南容,「邦有道不廢,邦無道免於刑戮。」以其兄之子妻之。

Of Nan Jung the Master said, When the land keeps the Way he will not be neglected; and if the land loses the Way he will escape punishment and death. He gave him his brother's daughter to wed.

3. 子謂子賤,「君子哉若人!魯無君子者,斯焉取斯?」

Of Tzu-chien the Master said, What a gentleman he is! But if there were no gentlemen in Lu, where could he have picked it up?

4. 子貢問曰:「賜也何如?」子曰:「女器也。」曰:「何器也?」曰:「瑚璉也。」

Tzu-kung asked, And what of me? Thou art a vessel, said the Master. What kind of vessel? A rich temple vessel.

5. 或曰:「雍也仁而不佞。」子曰:「焉用佞?御人以口給,屢憎於人。不知其仁,焉用 佞?」

One said, Yung has love, but he is not glib. The Master said, What is the good of being glib? Fighting men with tongue-craft mostly makes men hate you. Whether love be his I do not know, but what is the good of being glib?

6. 子使漆雕開仕。對曰:「吾斯之未能信。」子說。

The Master moved Ch'i-tiao K'ai to take office. He answered, For this I want confidence. The Master was pleased.

7. 子曰:「道不行,乘桴浮於海。從我者,其由與?」子路聞之喜。子曰:「由也好勇過 我,無所取材。」

The Master said, Forsaken is the Way! I must take ship and stem the seas; and Yu shall go with me. When Tzu-lu heard this he was glad. The Master said, Yu loves daring more than I do, but he is at a loss how to take things.

8. 孟武伯問:「子路仁乎?」子曰:「不知也。」又問。子曰:「由也,千乘之國,可使 治其賦也,不知其仁也。」「求也何如?」子曰:「求也,千室之邑,百乘之家,可使為之宰也,不知其仁也。」「赤也何如?」子曰:「赤也,束帶立於朝,可使與賓客言也,不知其仁也。」

Meng Wu asked whether Tzu-lu had love. I do not know, said the Master. He asked again. A land of a thousand chariots might give Yu charge of its levies; but whether love be his I do not know. And how about Ch'iu? A town of a thousand households, a clan of an hundred chariots might make Ch'iu governor; but whether love be his I do not know. And how about Ch'ih? Standing in the court, girt with his sash, Ch'ih might entertain the guests; but whether love be his I do not know.

9. 子謂子貢曰:「女與回也,孰愈?」對曰:「賜也,何敢望回?回也,聞一以知十,賜 也聞一知二。」子曰:「弗如也,吾與女,弗如也。」

The Master said to Tzu-kung, Which is the better man, thou or Hui? He answered, How dare I look as high as Hui? When Hui hears one thing, he understands ten; when I hear one thing I understand two. The Master said, Thou art not his like. Neither art thou his like, nor am I.

10. 宰予晝寢。子曰:「朽木不可雕也,糞土之牆不可杇也。於予與何誅?」子曰:「始 吾於人也,聽其言而信其行;今吾於人也,聽其言而觀其行。於予與改是。」

Tsai Yü slept in the daytime. The Master said, Rotten wood cannot be carved, nor are dung walls plastered. Why chide with Yü? The Master said, When I first met men I listened to their words and took their deeds on trust. When I meet them now, I listen to their words and watch their deeds. I righted this on Yü.

11. 子曰:「吾未見剛者。」或對曰:「申棖。」子曰:「棖也慾,焉得剛?」

The Master said, I have met no firm man. One answered, Shen Ch'ang. The Master said, Ch'ang is passionate; how can he be firm?

12. 子貢曰:「我不欲人之加諸我也,吾亦欲無加諸人。」子曰:「賜也,非爾所及 也。」

Tzu-kung said, What I do not wish done to me, I likewise wish not to do to others. The Master said, That is still beyond thee, Tz'u.

13. 子貢曰:「夫子之文章,可得而聞也;夫子之言性與天道,不可得而聞也。」

Tzu-kung said, To hear the Master on his art and precepts is granted us; but to hear him on man's nature and the Way of Heaven is not.

14. 子路有聞,未之能行,唯恐有聞。

Until Tzu-lu could do what he had heard, his only fear was to hear more.

15. 子貢問曰:「孔文子何以謂之文也?」子曰:「敏而好學,不恥下問,是以謂之文 也。」

Tzu-kung asked, Why was K'ung-wen called cultured? The Master said, He was quick and loved learning; he was not ashamed to ask those beneath him: that is why he was called cultured.

16. 子謂子產有君子之道四焉:其行己也恭,其事上也敬,其養民也惠,其使民也義。

The Master said, Of the ways of a gentleman Tzu-ch'an had four. His life was modest; he honoured those that he served. He was kind in feeding the people, and he was just in his calls upon them.

17. 子曰:「晏平仲善與人交,久而敬之。」

The Master said, Yen P'ing was a good friend. The longer he knew you, the more attentive he grew.

18. 子曰:「藏文仲居蔡,山節藻梲,何如其知也?」

The Master said, Tsang Wen lodged his tortoise with hills on the pillars and reeds on the uprights: was this his wisdom?

19. 子張問曰:「令尹子文三仕為令尹,無喜色;三已之,無慍色。舊令尹之政,必以告 新令尹。何如?」子曰:「忠矣。」曰:「仁矣乎?」曰:「未知,焉得仁!」「崔子弒齊君,陳文子有馬十乘,棄而違之。至於他邦,則曰,『猶吾大夫崔子也。』違之,之一邦,則又曰:『猶吾大夫崔子也。』違之。何如?」子曰:「清矣。」曰:「仁矣乎?」子曰:「未知,焉得仁?」

Tzu-chang said, The chief minister, Tzu-wen, was thrice made minister without showing gladness, thrice he left office with unmoved looks. He always told the new ministers how the old ones had governed: how was that? He was faithful, said the Master. But was it love? I do not know, said the Master: how should this amount to love? When Ts'ui murdered the lord of Ch'i, Ch'en Wen threw up ten teams of horses and left the land. On coming to another kingdom he said, 'Like my lord Ts'ui,' and left it. On coming to a second kingdom he said again, 'Like my lord Ts'ui,' and left it: how was that? He was clean, said the Master. But was it love? I do not know, said the Master: how should this amount to love?

20. 季文子三思而後行。子聞之,曰:「再斯可矣。」

Chi Wen thought thrice before acting. On hearing this the Master said, Twice is enough.

21. 子曰:「甯武子,邦有道則知,邦無道則愚。其知可及也,其愚不可及也。」

The Master said, Whilst the land kept the Way Ning Wu showed wisdom; when his land lost the Way he grew simple. His wisdom we may come up to; such simplicity is beyond us.

22. 子在陳曰:「歸與!歸與!吾黨之小子狂簡,斐然成章,不知所以裁之。」

When he was in Ch'en the Master said, Home, I must go home! Zealous, or rash, or finished scholars, my young sons at home do not know what pruning they still need!

23. 子曰:「伯夷叔齊,不念舊惡,怨是用希。」

The Master said, Because Po-yi and Shu-ch'i never remembered old wickedness they made few enemies.

24. 子曰:「孰謂微生高直?或乞醯焉,乞諸其鄰而與之。」

The Master said, Who can call Wei-sheng Kao straight? A man begged him for vinegar: he begged it of a neighbour, and gave it.

25. 子曰:「巧言、令色、足恭,左丘明恥之,丘亦恥之。匿怨而友其人,左丘明恥之, 丘亦恥之。」

The Master said, Smooth words, fawning looks, and overdone humility, Tso Ch'iu-ming thought shameful, and so do I. He thought it shameful to hide ill-will and ape friendship, and so do I.

26. 顏淵、季路侍。子曰:「盍各言爾志?」子路曰:「願車馬、衣輕裘,與朋友共,敝 之而無憾。」顏淵曰:「願無伐善,無施勞。」子路曰:「願聞子之志。」子曰:「老者安之,朋友信之,少者懷之。」

As Yen Yüan and Chi-lu were sitting with him, the Master said, Why not each of you tell me thy wishes? Tzu-lu said, I should like carriages and horses, and clothes of light fur to share with my friends, and, if they spoiled them, not to get angry. Yen Yüan said, I should like to make no boast of talent or show or merit. Tzu-lu said, We should like to hear your wishes, Sir. The Master said, To give the old folk peace, to be true to friends, and to have a heart for the young.

27. 子曰:「已矣乎!吾未見能見其過,而內自訟者也。」

The Master said, It is finished! I have met no one that can see his own faults and arraign himself within.

28. 子曰:「十室之邑,必有忠信如丘者焉,不如丘之好學也。」

The Master said, In a hamlet of ten houses there must be men that are as faithful and true men as I, but they do not love learning as I do.

Author: Confucius (孔夫子); translated by James Legge

1. 孔子謂季氏,「八佾舞於庭,是可忍也,孰不可忍也?」

Of the Chi having eight rows of dancers in his courtyard, Confucius said, If this is to be borne, what is not to be borne?

2. 三家者以雍徹。子曰:「『相維辟公,天子穆穆』,奚取於三家之堂?」

When the sacrifice was ended, the Three Clans had the Yung hymn sung. The Master said, Princes and dukes assist. Solemn is the Son of heaven; what meaning has this in the courtyard of the Three Clans?

3. 子曰:「人而不仁,如禮何?人而不仁,如樂何?」

The Master said, A man without love, what is courtesy to him? A man without love, what is music to him?

4. 林放問禮之本。子曰:「大哉問!禮,與其奢也,寧儉;喪,與其易也,寧戚。」

Lin Fang asked what good form is at root. The Master said, A big question! At high-tides, thrift is better than waste; at burials, grief is worth more than nicety.

5. 子曰:「夷狄之有君,不如諸夏之亡也。」

The Master said, Every wild tribe has its lord, whereas the lands of Hsia have none!

6. 季氏旅於泰山,子謂冉有曰:「女弗能救與?」對曰:「不能。」子曰:「嗚呼!曾謂 泰山不如林放乎?」

The Chi sacrificed to Mount T'ai. The Master said to Jan Yu, Canst thou not stop this? He answered, I cannot. Alas! said the Master; dost thou think Mount T'ai less wise than Lin Fang?

7. 子曰:「君子無所爭,必也射乎!揖讓而升,下而飲。其爭也君子。」

The Master said, A gentleman never strives with others. Or must he, perhaps, in shooting? But then, as he bows and makes way in going up or steps down to drink, his strife is that of a gentleman.

8. 子夏問曰:「巧笑倩兮,美目盼兮,素以為絢兮。何謂也?」子曰:「繪事後素。」 曰:「禮後乎?」子曰:「起予者商也!始可與言詩矣。」

Tzu-hsia asked, What is the meaning of: Her cunning smiles, Her dimples light, Her lovely eyes, So clear and bright, All unadorned, The background white. Colouring, said the Master, is second to the plain ground. Then good form is second, said Tzu-hsia. Shang, said the Master, thou hast hit my meaning! Now I can talk of poetry to thee.

9. 子曰:「夏禮,吾能言之,杞不足徵也;殷禮,吾能言之,宋不足徵也。文獻不足故 也。足,則吾能徵之矣。」

The Master said, I can speak of the manners of Hsia; but as proof of them Chi is not enough. I can speak of the manners of Yin; but as proof of them Sung is not enough. This is due to their dearth of books and great men. If there were enough of these, I could use them as proofs.

10. 子曰:「禘自既灌而往者,吾不欲觀之矣。」

The Master said, After the drink offering at the Great Sacrifice, I have no wish to see more.

11. 或問禘之說。子曰:「不知也。知其說者之於天下也,其如示諸斯乎!」指其掌。

One asked the meaning of the Great Sacrifice. The Master said, I do not know. He that knew the meaning would overlook all below heaven as I do this—and he pointed to his palm.

12. 祭如在,祭神如神在。子曰:「吾不與祭,如不祭。」

He worshipped as if those whom he worshipped were before him; he worshipped the spirits as if they were before him. The Master said: For me, to take no part in the sacrifice is the same as not sacrificing.

13. 王孫賈問曰:「與其媚於奧,寧媚於灶,何謂也?」子曰:「不然,獲罪於天,吾所 禱也。」

Wang-sun Chia said, What is the meaning of, It is better to court the hearth-god than the god of the home? Not so, said the Master. A sin against Heaven leaves no room for prayer.

14. 子曰:「周監於二代,郁郁乎文哉!吾從周。」

The Master said, Chou looks back on two lines of kings. How rich, how rich it is in art! I follow Chou.

15. 子入太廟,每事問。或曰:「孰謂鄹人之子知禮乎?入太廟,每事問。」子聞之, 曰:「是禮也。」

On going into the Great Temple the Master asked about everything. One said, Who says that the Tsou man's son knows the rites? On going into the Great Temple he asked about everything. When he heard this, the Master said, Such is the rite.

16. 子曰:「射不主皮,為力不同科,古之道也。」

The Master said, In shooting, the arrow need not go right through the target, for men are not the same in strength. This was the old rule.

17. 子貢欲去告朔之餼羊。子曰:「賜也!爾愛其羊,我愛其禮。」

Tzu-kung wished to do away with the sheep offering at the new moon. The Master said, Thou lovest the sheep, Tz'u: I love the rite.

18. 子曰:「事君盡禮,人以為諂也。」

The Master said: Serve the king with all courtesy, men call it fawning.

19. 定公問:「君使臣,臣事君,如之何?」孔子對曰:「君使臣以禮,臣事君以忠。」

Duke Ting asked how a lord should treat his lieges, and how lieges should serve their lord. Confucius answered, The lord should treat his lieges with courtesy; lieges should serve their lord faithfully.

20. 子曰:「關睢,樂而不淫,哀而不傷。」

The Master said, The poem The Osprey is glad, but not wanton; it is sad, but not morbid.

21. 哀公問社於宰我。宰我對曰:「夏后氏以松,殷人以柏,周人以栗,曰,使民戰 栗。」子聞之,曰:「成事不說,遂事不諫,既往不咎。」

Duke Ai asked Tsai Wo about the earth-altars. Tsai Wo answered, The Emperors of the house of Hsia grew firs round them; the men of Yin grew cypress; the men of Chou grew chestnut, which was to say, Let the people tremble. On hearing this, the Master said, I do not speak of what is ended, chide what is settled, or find fault with what is past.

22. 子曰:「管仲之器小哉。」或曰:「管仲儉乎?」曰:「管氏有三歸,官事不攝, 焉得儉?然則管仲知禮乎?」曰:「邦君樹塞門,管氏亦樹塞門。邦君為兩君之好,有反坫,管氏亦有反坫。管氏而知禮,孰不知禮?」

The Master said, How shallow was Kuan Chung! But, said one, was not Kuan Chung thrifty? The Kuan, said the Master, owned San Kuei, and no one of his household held two posts: was that thrift? At least Kuan Chung knew good form. The Master said, Kings screen their gates with trees; the Kuan, too, had trees to screen his gate. When two kings are carousing, they have a stand for the turned-down cups; the Kuan had a turned-down cup-stand, too! If the Kuan knew good form, who does not know good form?

23. 子語魯大師樂,曰:「樂其可知也:始作,翕如也;從之,純如也,皦如也,繹如 也,以成。」

The Master said to the Great Master of Lu, We can learn how to play music; at first each part in unison; then a swell of harmony, each part distinct, rolling on to the finish.

24. 儀封人請見,曰:「君子之至於斯也,吾未嘗不得見也。」從者見之。出曰:「二三 子何患於喪乎?天下之無道也久矣,天將以夫子為木鐸。」

The warden of Yi asked to see Confucius, saying, No gentleman has ever come here whom I have failed to see. The followers took him in. On leaving he said, My two-three boys, why lament your fall? The Way has long been lost below heaven! Now Heaven shall make the Master into a warning bell.

25. 子謂韶,「盡美矣,又盡善也。」謂武,「盡美矣,未盡善也。」 The Master said of the music of Shao, It is thoroughly beautiful, and thoroughly good, too. Of the music of Wu, he said, It is thoroughly beautiful, but not thoroughly good.

26. 子曰:「居上不寬,為禮不敬,臨喪不哀,吾何以觀之哉?」 The Master said, Rank without beauty; ceremony without reverence; mourning without grief, why should I cast them a glance?

Author: Confucius (孔夫子); translated by James Legge

1. 子曰:「學而時習之,不亦說乎?有朋自遠方來,不亦樂乎?人不知而不慍,不亦君子 乎?」

The Master said, To learn and then do, is not that a pleasure? When friends come from afar do we not rejoice? To live unknown and not fret, is not that to be a gentleman?

2. 有子曰:「其為人也孝弟,而好犯上者,鮮矣;不好犯上,而好作亂者,未之有也。 君子務本,本立而道生。孝弟也者,其為仁之本與!」

Yu-tzu said. Few men that are good sons and good brothers are fond of withstanding those over them. A man that is not fond of withstanding those over him and is yet fond of broils is nowhere found. A gentleman heeds the roots. When the root has taken, the Way is born. And to be a good son and a good brother, is not that the root of love?

3. 子曰:「巧言、令色,鮮矣仁!」

The Master said, Smooth words and fawning looks are seldom found with love.

4. 曾子曰:「吾日三省吾身,為人謀而不忠乎?與朋友交而不信乎?傳不習乎?」

Tseng-tzu said, Thrice daily I ask myself: In dealing for others, have I been unfaithful? Have I been untrue to friends? Do I practise what I preach?

5. 子曰:「道千乘之國,敬事而信,節用而愛人,使民以時。」

The Master said, To guide a land of a thousand chariots, honour business and be true; spend little and love men; time thy calls on the people.

6. 子曰:「弟子入則孝,出則弟,謹而信,汎愛眾,而親仁。行有餘力,則以學文。」

The Master said, The young should be dutiful at home, modest abroad, careful and true, overflowing in kindness for all, but in brotherhood with love. And if they have strength to spare they should spend it on the arts.

7. 子夏曰:「賢賢易色,事父母能竭其力,事君能致其身,與朋友交言而有信,雖曰未 學,吾必謂之學矣。」

Tzu-hsia said, If a man eschews beauty and honours worth, if he serves his father and mother with all his strength, if he is ready to give his life for his lord, and keeps faith with his friends, though others may say he has no learning, I must call him learned.

8. 子曰:「君子不重,則不威,學則不固。主忠信,無友不如己者,過則勿憚改。」

The Master said, A gentleman will not be looked up to unless he is staid, nor will his learning be sound. Put faithfulness and truth first; have no friends unlike thyself; be not ashamed to mend thy faults.

9. 曾子曰:「慎終追遠,民德歸厚矣。」

Tseng-tzu said, Heed the dead, follow up the past, and the soul of the people will again grow great.

10. 子禽問於子貢曰:「夫子至於是邦也,必聞其政,求之與?抑與之與?子貢曰:「夫 子溫良恭儉讓以得之,夫子之求之也,其諸異乎人之求之與?」

Tzu-ch'in said to Tzu-kung, When he comes to a country the Master always hears how it is governed; does he ask, or is it told him? Tzu-kung said, The Master gets it by his warmth and honesty, by politeness, modesty and yielding. The way the Master asks is unlike other men's asking.

11. 子曰:「父在觀其志,父沒觀其行,三年無改於父之道,可謂孝矣。」

The Master said, Whilst thy father lives look for his purpose; when he is gone, look how he walked. To change nothing in thy father's ways for three years may be called pious.

12. 有子曰:「禮之用,和為貴。先王之道,斯為美,小大由之,有所不行,知和而和, 不以禮節之,亦不可行也。」

Yu-tzu said, To behave with ease is the best part of courtesy. This was the beauty of the old kings' ways; this they followed in small and great. But knowing this, it will not do to give way to ease, unchecked by courtesy. This too is wrong.

13. 有子曰:「信近於義,言可復也。恭近於禮,遠恥辱也。因不失其親,亦可宗也。」

Yu-tzu said, If pledges are close to right, word can be kept. If attentions are close to courtesy, shame will be kept far. If we do not choose our leaders wrong, we may worship them too.

14. 子曰:「君子食無求飽,居無求安,敏於事而慎於言,就有道而正焉,可謂好學也 已。」

The Master said, A gentleman that does not seek to eat his fill, nor look for ease in his home, who is earnest at work and careful of speech, who walks with those that keep the Way, and is guided by them, may be said to love learning.

15. 子貢曰:「貧而無諂,富而無驕,何如?」子曰:「可也,未若貧而樂,富而好禮者 也。」子貢曰:「詩云:『如切如磋,如琢如磨』,其斯之謂與?」子曰:「賜也,始可與言詩已矣,告諸往而知來者。」

Tzu-kung said, Poor, but no flatterer; rich, but not proud: how would that be? It would do, said the Master; but better still were poor but merry; rich, but loving courtesy. Tzu-kung said, When the poem says: If ye cut, if ye file, If ye polish and grind, is that what is meant? The Master said, Now I can begin to talk of poetry to Tz'u. Tell him what is gone, and he knows what shall come.

16. 子曰:「不患人之不己之,患不知人也。」

The Master said, Not to be known is no sorrow. My sorrow is not knowing men.