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Author: Confucius (孔夫子); translated by James Legge

The Master said, Wisdom has no doubts; love does not fret; the bold have no fears.

16. 子在川上曰:「逝者如斯夫!不舍晝夜。」

As he stood by a stream, the Master said, Hasting away like this, day and night, without stop!

17. 子曰:「吾未見好德如好色者也。」

The Master said, I have seen no one that loves mind as he loves looks.

18. 子曰:「譬如為山,未成一簣,止,吾止也!譬如平地,雖覆一簣,進,吾往也!」

The Master said, In making a mound, if I stop when one more basket would finish it, I stop. When flattening ground, if, after overturning one basket, I go on, I go ahead.

19. 子曰:「語之而不惰者,其回也與?」

The Master said, Never listless when spoken to, such was Hui.

20. 子謂顏淵曰:「惜乎!吾見其進也,吾未見其止也!」

Speaking of Yen Yüan, the Master said, The pity of it! I saw him go on, but I never saw him stop!

21. 子曰:「苗而不秀者,有矣夫!秀而不實者,有矣夫!」

The Master said, Some sprouts do not blossom, some blossoms bear no fruit!

22. 子曰:「後生可畏,焉知來者之不如今也?四十五十而無聞焉,斯亦不足畏也已!」

The Master said, Awe is due to youth. May not to-morrow be bright as to-day? To men of forty or fifty, who are still unknown, no awe is due.

23. 子曰:「法語之言,能無從乎?改之為貴!巽與之言,能無說乎?繹之為貴!說而不 繹,從而不改,吾末如之何也已矣!」

The Master said, Who would not give ear to a downright word? But to mend is better. Who would not be pleased by a guiding word? But to think it out is better. With such as are pleased but do not think out, or who listen but do not mend, I can do nothing.

24. 子曰:「主忠信,毋友不如己者,過則勿憚改。」

The Master said, Put faithfulness and truth first; have no friends unlike thyself; be not ashamed to mend thy faults.

25. 子曰:「三軍可奪帥也,匹夫不可奪志也。」

The Master said, Three armies may be robbed of their leader, no wretch can be robbed of his will.

26. 子曰:「衣敝縕袍,與衣孤貉者立,而不恥者,其由也與!不忮不求,何用不臧?」 子路終身誦之。子曰:「是道也,何足以臧!」

The Master said, Yu is the man to stand, clad in a worn-out quilted gown, unashamed, amid robes of fox and badger! Without hatred or greed, What but good does he do? But when Tzu-lu was everlastingly humming these words, the Master said, This is the way towards it, but how much short of goodness itself!

27. 子曰:「歲寒,然後知松柏之後彫也。」

The Master said, Erst the cold days show how fir and cypress are last to fade.

28. 子曰:「知者不惑,仁者不憂,勇者不懼。」

The Master said, Wisdom has no doubts; love does not fret; the bold have no fears.

29. 子曰:「可與共學,未可與適道;可與適道,未可與立;可與立,未可與權。」

The Master said, With some we can learn together, but we cannot go their way; we can go the same way with others, though our standpoint is not the same; and with some, though our standpoint is the same our weights and scales are not.

30. 「唐棣之華,偏其反而,豈不爾思?室是遠而。」子曰:「未之思也,未何遠之 有?」

The blossoms of the plum tree Are dancing in play; My thoughts are with thee, In thy home far away. The Master said, Her thoughts were not with him, or how could he be far away?

Author: Confucius (孔夫子); translated by James Legge

From four things the Master was quite free: by-ends and 'must' and 'shall' and 'I.'

子罕第九 BOOK IX

1. 子罕言利,與命與仁。

The Master seldom spake of gain, or love, or the Bidding.

2. 達巷黨人曰,「大哉孔子,博學而無所成名。」子聞之,謂門弟子曰,「吾何執?執御 乎,執射乎?吾執御矣。」

A man of the village of Ta-hsiang said, The great Confucius, with his vast learning, has made no name in anything. When the Master heard this, he said to his disciples, What shall I take up? Shall I take up driving, or shall I take up shooting? I shall take up driving.

3. 子曰:「麻冕,禮也。今也純儉,吾從眾。拜下,禮也。今拜乎上,泰也,雖違眾,吾 從下。」

The Master said, A linen cap is good form; now silk is worn. It is cheap, so I follow the many. To bow below is good form; now it is done above. This is arrogance, so, breaking with the many, I still bow below.

4. 子絕四,毋意,毋必,毋固,毋我。

From four things the Master was quite free: by-ends and 'must' and 'shall' and 'I.'

5. 子畏於匡。曰:「文王既沒,文不在茲乎,天之將喪斯文也。後死者不得與於斯文也。 天之未喪斯文也。匡人其如予何。」

When he was afraid in K'uang, the Master said, Since the death of King Wen, is not the seat of culture here? If Heaven had meant to destroy our culture, a later mortal would have had no part in it. Until Heaven condemns our culture, what can the men of K'uang do to me?

6. 大宰問於子貢曰:「夫子聖者與!何其多能也?」子貢曰:「固天縱之將聖,又多能 也。」子聞之曰:「大宰知我乎?吾少也賤,故多能鄙事。君子多乎哉?不多也!」牢曰:「子云:『吾不試,故藝。』

A high minister said to Tzu-kung, The Master must be a holy man, he can do so many things! Tzu-kung said, Heaven has, indeed, given him so much that he is almost holy, and he can do many things, too. When the Master heard this, he said, Does the minister know me? Because I was poor when young, I can do many paltry things. But does doing many things make a gentleman? No, not doing many does. Lao said, The Master would say, As I had no post I learned the crafts.

7. 子曰:「吾有知乎哉?無知也。有鄙夫問於我,空空如也;我叩其兩端而竭焉。」

The Master said, Have I in truth wisdom? I have no wisdom. But when a common fellow emptily asks me anything, I tap it on this side and that, and sift it to the bottom.

8. 子曰:「鳳鳥不至,河不出圖,吾已矣乎!」

The Master said, The phœnix comes not, the River gives forth no sign: all is over with me!

9. 子見齊衰者,冕衣裳者,與瞽者見之,雖少必作,過之必趨。」

When the Master saw folk clad in mourning, or in cap and gown, or a blind man, he always rose—even for the young,—or, if he was passing them, he quickened his step.

10. 顏淵喟然嘆曰:「仰之彌高,鑽之彌堅,瞻之在前,忽焉在後!夫子循循然善誘人, 博我以文,約我以禮。欲罷不能,既竭吾才,如有所立,卓爾。雖欲從之,末由也已!」

Yen Yüan heaved a sigh, and said, As I look up it grows higher, deeper as I dig! I catch sight of it ahead, and on a sudden it is behind me! The Master leads men on, deftly bit by bit. He widens me with culture, he binds me with courtesy. If I wished to stop I could not until my strength were spent. What seems the mark stands near; but though I long to reach it, I find no way.

11. 子疾病,子路使門人為臣,病間曰:「久矣哉,由之行詐也!無臣而為有臣,吾誰欺 ?欺天乎?且予與其死於臣之手也,無寧死於二三子之手乎?且予縱不得大葬,予死於道路乎?」

When the Master was very ill, Tzu-lu made the disciples act as ministers. During a better spell the Master said, Yu has long been feigning. This show of ministers, when I have no ministers, whom will it take in? Will Heaven be taken in? And is it not better to die in the arms of my two-three boys than to die in the arms of ministers? And, if I miss a big burial, shall I die by the roadside?

12. 子貢曰:「有美玉於斯,韞而藏諸?求善賈而沽諸?」子曰:「沽之哉!沽之哉!我 待賈者也!」

Tzu-kung said, If I had here a fair piece of jade, should I hide it away in a case, or seek a good price and sell it? Sell it, sell it! said the Master. I tarry for my price.

13. 子欲居九夷。或曰:「陋,如之何?」子曰:「君子居之,何陋之有!」

The Master wished to dwell among the nine tribes. One said, They are low; how could ye? The Master said, Wherever a gentleman lives, will there be anything low?

14. 子曰:「吾自衛反魯,然後樂正,雅頌,各得其所。」 The Master said. After I came back from Wei to Lu the music was set straight and each song found its place.

15. 子曰:「出則事公卿,入則事父兄,喪事不敢不勉,不為酒困,何有於我哉!」

The Master said, To serve dukes and ministers abroad and father and brothers at home; in matters of mourning not to dare to be slack; and to be no thrall to wine: to which of these have I won?

Author: Confucius (孔夫子); translated by James Legge

The Master said, Without good form attentions grow into fussiness, heed becomes fearfulness, daring becomes unruliness, frankness becomes rudeness. When gentlemen are true to kinsfolk, love will thrive among the people; if they do not forsake old friends, the people will not steal.

1. 子曰:「泰伯其可謂至德也已矣。三以天下讓,民無得而稱焉。」

The Master said, T'ai-po may be said to have carried nobility furthest. Thrice he refused all below heaven. Men were at a loss how to praise him.

2. 子曰:「恭而無禮則勞,慎而無禮則葸,勇而無禮則亂,直而無禮則絞。君子篤於親 ,則民興於仁。故舊不遺,則民不偷。」

The Master said, Without good form attentions grow into fussiness, heed becomes fearfulness, daring becomes unruliness, frankness becomes rudeness. When gentlemen are true to kinsfolk, love will thrive among the people; if they do not forsake old friends, the people will not steal.

3. 曾子有疾,召門弟子曰:「啟予足!啟予手!詩云:『戰戰兢兢,如臨深淵,如履薄 冰。』而今而後,吾知免夫!小子!」

When Tseng-tzu lay sick he called his disciples and said, Uncover my feet, uncover my arms. The poem says, As if a deep gulf Were yawning below, As crossing thin ice, Take heed how ye go. My little children, I have known how to keep myself unhurt until now and hereafter.

4. 曾子有疾,孟敬子問之。曾子言曰:「鳥之將死,其鳴也哀;人之將死,其言也善。君 子所貴乎道者三:動容貌,斯遠暴慢矣;正顏色,斯近信矣;出辭氣,斯遠鄙倍矣。籩豆之事,則有司存。」

When Tseng-tzu was sick Meng Ching came to ask after him. Tseng-tzu said, When a bird is dying his notes are sad; when man is dying his words are good. Three branches of the Way are dear to a gentleman: To banish from his bearing violence and disdain; to sort his face to the truth, and to banish from his speech what is low or unseemly. The ritual of chalice and platter has servitors to see to it.

5. 曾子曰:「以能問於不能,以多問於寡,有若無,實若虛,犯而不校,昔者吾友,嘗從 事於斯矣。」

Tseng-tzu said, When we can, to ask those that cannot; when we are more, to ask those that are less; having, to seem wanting; real, to seem shadow; when gainsaid, never answering back; I had a friend once that could do thus.

6. 曾子曰:「可以託六尺之孤,可以寄百里之命,臨大節而不可奪也,君子人與,君子人 也。」

Tseng-tzu said, A man to whom an orphan, a few feet high, or the fate of an hundred towns, may be entrusted, and whom no crisis can corrupt, is he not a gentleman, a gentleman indeed?

7. 曾子曰:「士不可以不弘毅,任重而道遠。仁以為己任,不亦重乎,死而後已,不亦遠 乎。」

Tseng-tzu said, The knight had need be strong and bold; for his burden is heavy, the way is far. His burden is love, is it not a heavy one? No halt before death, is that not far?

8. 子曰:「興於詩,立於禮,成於樂。」

The Master said, Poetry rouses us, we stand upon courtesy, music is our crown.

9. 子曰:「民可使由之,不可使知之。」

The Master said, The people may be made to follow, we cannot make them understand.

10. 子曰:「好勇疾貧,亂也。人而不仁,疾之已甚,亂也。」

The Master said, Love of daring and hatred of poverty lead to crime; a man without love, if he is sorely harassed, turns to crime.

11. 子曰:「如有周公之才之美,使驕且吝,其餘不足觀也已。」

The Master said, All the comely gifts of the Duke of Chou, coupled with pride and meanness, would not be worth a glance.

12. 子曰:「三年學,不至於穀,不易得也。」

The Master said, A man to whom three years of learning have borne no fruit would be hard to find.

13. 子曰:「篤信好學,守死善道。危邦不人,亂邦不居,天下有道則見,無道則隱。邦 有道,貧且賤焉,恥也,邦無道,富且貴焉,恥也。」

The Master said, A man of simple faith, who loves learning, who guards and betters his way unto death, will not enter a tottering kingdom, nor stay in a lawless land. When all below heaven follows the Way, he is seen; when it loses the Way, he is unseen. While his land keeps the Way, he is ashamed to be poor and lowly; but when his land has lost the Way, wealth and honours shame him.

14. 子曰:「不在其位,不謀其政。」 The Master said, When out of place, discuss not policy.

15. 子曰:「師摯之始,關睢之亂,洋洋乎盈耳哉。」

The Master said, In the first days of the music-master Chih how the hubbub of the Kuan-chü rose sea beyond sea! How it filled the ear!

16. 子曰:「狂而不直,侗而不愿,悾悾而不信,吾不知之矣。」

The Master said, Of men that are zealous, but not straight; dull, but not simple; helpless, but not truthful, I will know nothing.

17. 子曰:「學如不及,猶恐失之。」

The Master said, Learn as though the time were short, like one that fears to lose.

18. 子曰:「巍巍乎,舜禹之有天下也,而不與焉。」

The Master said, How wonderful were Shun and Yü! To have all below heaven was nothing to them!

19. 子曰:「大哉堯之為君也,巍巍乎,唯天為大,唯堯則之,蕩蕩乎,民無能名焉。巍 巍乎,其有成功也,煥乎,其有文章。」

The Master said, How great a lord was Yao! Wonderful! Heaven alone is great; Yao alone was patterned on it. Vast, boundless! Men's words failed them. The wonder of the work done by him! The flame of his art and precepts!

20. 舜有臣五人,而天下治。武王曰:「予有亂臣十人。」孔子曰:「才難,不其然乎, 唐虞之際,於斯為盛,有婦人焉,九人而已。三分天下有其二,以服事殷,周之德,其可謂至德也已矣。」

Shun had five ministers, and there was order below heaven. King Wu said, I have ten uncommon ministers. Confucius said, 'The dearth of talent,' is not that the truth? When Yü followed T'ang the times were rich in talent; yet there were but nine men in all, and one woman. In greatness of soul we may say that Chou was highest: he had two-thirds of all below heaven and bent it to the service of Yin.

21. 子曰:「禹吾無間然矣,菲飲食,而致孝乎鬼神,惡衣服,而致美乎黻冕,卑宮室, 而盡力乎溝洫,禹吾無間然矣。」

The Master said, I see no flaw in Yü. He ate and drank little, yet he was lavish in piety to the ghosts and spirits. His clothes were bad, but in his cap and gown he was fair indeed. His palace buildings were poor, yet he gave his whole strength to dykes and ditches. No kind of flaw can I see in Yü.

Author: Confucius (孔夫子); translated by James Legge

The Master said, How dare I lay claim to holiness or love? A man of endless craving, who never tires of teaching, I might be called, but that is all.

21. 子曰:「三人行,必有我師焉:擇其善者而從之,其不善者而改之。」

The Master said, Walking three together I am sure of teachers. I pick out the good and follow it; I see the bad and shun it.

22. 子曰:「天生德於予,桓魋其如予何?」

The Master said, Heaven begat the mind in me; what can Huan T'ui do to me?

23. 子曰:「二三子以我為隱乎?吾無隱乎爾。吾無行而不與二三子者,是丘也。」

The Master said, My two-three boys, do ye think I hide things? I hide nothing from you. I am a man that keeps none of his doings from his two-three boys.

24. 子以四教:文,行,忠,信。

The Master taught four things: art, conduct, faithfulness and truth.

25. 子曰:「聖人,吾不得而見之矣,得見君子者,斯可矣。」子曰:「善人,吾不得而 見之矣,得見有恒者,斯可矣。亡而為有,虛而為盈,約而為泰,難乎有恒矣。」

The Master said, A holy man I shall not live to see; enough could I find a gentleman! A good man I shall not live to see; enough could I find a steadfast one! But when nothing poses as something, cloud as substance and want as riches, it is hard indeed to be steadfast!

26. 子釣而不綱,弋不射宿。

The Master angled, but he did not fish with a net; he shot, but not at birds sitting.

27. 子曰:「蓋有不知而作之者,我無是也。多聞,擇其善者而從之。多見而識之,知 之次 也。」

The Master said, There may be men that do things without knowing why. I do not. To hear much, pick out the good and follow it; to see much and think it over; this comes next to wisdom.

28. 互鄉難與言,童子見,門人惑。子曰:「與其進也,不與其退也,唯何甚?人潔己以 進,與其潔也,不保其往也。」

To talk to the Hu village was hard. When a lad was seen by the Master, the disciples doubted. The Master said, I allow his coming, not what he does later. Why be so harsh? If a man cleans himself to come in, I admit his cleanness, but do not warrant his past.

29. 子曰:「仁遠乎哉?我欲仁,斯仁至矣。」

The Master said, Is love so far a thing? I long for love, and lo! love is come.

30. 陳司敗問昭公知禮乎,孔子曰:「知禮。」孔子退,揖巫馬期而進之曰:「吾聞君子 不黨,君子亦黨乎?君取於吳,為同姓,謂之吳孟子。君而知禮,孰不知禮?」巫馬期以告。子曰:「丘也幸,苟有過,人必知之。」

A judge of Ch'en asked whether Duke Chao knew good form. Confucius answered, He knew good form. After Confucius had left, the judge beckoned Wu-ma Ch'i to him, and said, I had heard that gentlemen are of no party, but do they, too, take sides? This lord married a Wu, whose name was the same as his, and called her Miss Tzu of Wu: if he knew good form, who does not know good form? When Wu-ma Ch'i told the Master this he said, How lucky I am! If I go wrong, men are sure to know it!

31. 子與人歌而善,必使反之,而後和之。

When anyone sang to the Master, and sang well, he made him sing it again and joined in.

32. 子曰:「文,莫吾猶人也。躬行君子,則吾未之有得。」

The Master said, I have no more reading than others; to live as a gentleman is not yet mine.

33. 子曰:「若聖與仁,則吾豈敢?抑為之不厭,誨人不倦,則可謂云爾已矣。」公西華 曰:「正唯弟子不能學也。」

The Master said, How dare I lay claim to holiness or love? A man of endless craving, who never tires of teaching, I might be called, but that is all. That is just what we disciples cannot learn, said Kung-hsi Hua.

34. 子疾病,子路請禱。子曰:「有諸?」子路對曰:「有之。誄曰:『禱爾于上下神祗 』」子曰:「丘之禱久矣。」

When the Master was very ill, Tzu-lu asked leave to pray. Is it done? said the Master. It is, answered Tzu-lu. The Memorials say, Pray to the spirits above and to the Earth below. The Master said, Long-lasting has my prayer been.

35. 子曰:「奢則不孫,儉則固。與其不孫也,寧固。」

The Master said, Waste makes men unruly, thrift makes them mean; but they are better mean than unruly.

36. 子曰:「君子坦蕩蕩,小人長戚戚。」

The Master said, A gentleman is calm and spacious; the small man is always fretting.

37. 子溫而厲,威而不猛,恭而安。

The Master's manner was warm yet dignified. He was stern, but not fierce; humble, yet easy.

Author: Confucius (孔夫子); translated by James Legge

The Master said, Eating coarse rice and drinking water, with bent arm for pillow, we may be merry; but ill-gotten wealth and honours are to me a wandering cloud.

1. 子曰:「述而不作,信而好古,竊比於我老彭。」

The Master said, A teller and not a maker, one that trusts and loves the past; I might liken myself to our old P'eng.

2. 子曰:「默而識之,學而不厭,誨人不倦,何有於我哉?」

The Master said, To think things over in silence, to learn and be always hungry, to teach and never weary; is any of these mine?

3. 子曰:「德之不修,學之不講,聞義不能徒,不善不能改,是吾憂也。」

The Master said, Not making the most of my mind, want of thoroughness in learning, failure to do the right when told it, lack of strength to overcome faults; these are my sorrows.

4. 子之燕居,申申如也,夭夭如也。」

In his free moments the Master was easy and cheerful.

5. 子曰:「甚矣吾衰也!久矣吾不復夢見周公!」

The Master said, How deep is my decay! It is long since I saw the Duke of Chou in a dream.

6. 子曰:「志於道,據於德,依於仁,游於藝。」

The Master said, Keep thy will on the Way, lean on mind, rest in love, move in art.

7. 子曰:「自行束修以上,吾未嘗無誨焉。」

The Master said, From the man that paid in dried meat upwards, I have withheld teaching from no one.

8. 子曰:「不憤不啟,不悱不發。舉一隅不以三隅反,則不復也。」

The Master said, Only to those fumbling do I open, only for those stammering do I find the word. If I lift one corner and the other three are left unturned, I say no more.

9. 子食於有喪者之側,未嘗飽也。子於是日哭,則不歌。

When eating beside a mourner the Master never ate his fill. On days when he had been wailing, he did not sing.

10. 子謂顏淵曰:「用之則行,舍之則藏,惟我與爾有是夫。」子路曰:「子行三軍,則 誰與?」子曰:「暴虎馮河,死而不悔者,吾不與也。必也臨事而懼,好謀而成者也。」

The Master said to Yen Yüan, To go forward when in office and lie quiet when not; only I and thou can do that. Tzu-lu said, If ye had to lead three armies, Sir, whom would ye have with you? No man, said the Master, that would face a tiger bare-fisted, or plunge into a river and die without a qualm; but one, indeed, who, fearing what may come, lays his plans well and carries them through.

11. 子曰:「富而可求也,雖執鞭之士,吾亦為之。如不可求,從吾所好。」

The Master said, If shouldering a whip were a sure road to riches I should turn carter; but since there is no sure road, I tread the path I love.

12. 子之所慎:齊,戰,疾。

The Master gave heed to abstinence, war and sickness.

13. 子在齊聞韶,三月不知肉味,曰:「不圖為樂之至於斯也。」

When he was in Ch'i, for three months after hearing the Shao played, the Master knew not the taste of flesh. I did not suppose, he said, that music could reach such heights.

14. 冉有曰:「夫子為衛君乎?」子貢曰:「諾,吾將問之。」入曰:「伯夷、叔齊何人 也?」曰:「古之賢人也。」曰:「怨乎?」曰:「求仁而得仁,又何怨?」出曰:「夫子不為也。」

Jan Yu said, Is the Master for the lord of Wei? I shall ask him, said Tzu-kung. He went in, and said, What kind of men were Po-yi and Shu-ch'i? Worthy men of yore, said the Master. Did they rue the past? They sought love and found it; what had they to rue? Tzu-kung went out, and said, The Master is not for him.

15. 子曰:「飯疏食,飲水,曲肱而枕之,樂亦在其中矣。不義而富且貴,於我如浮雲。 」

The Master said, Eating coarse rice and drinking water, with bent arm for pillow, we may be merry; but ill-gotten wealth and honours are to me a wandering cloud.

16. 子曰:「加我數年,五十以學易,可以無大過矣。」

The Master said, Given a few more years, making fifty for learning the Yi, I might be freed from gross faults.

17. 子所雅言,詩、書、執禮,皆雅言也。

The Master liked to talk of poetry, history, and the upkeep of courtesy. Of all these he liked to talk.

18. 葉公問孔子於子路,子路不對。子曰:「女奚不曰,其為人也,發憤忘食,樂以忘 憂,不知老之將至云爾。」

The Duke of She asked Tzu-lu about Confucius. Tzu-lu did not answer. The Master said, Why didst thou not say, He is a man that forgets to eat in his eagerness, whose sorrows are forgotten in gladness, who knows not that age draws near?

19. 子曰:「我非生而知之者,好古,敏以求之者也。」

The Master said, I was not born to wisdom: I loved the past, and sought it earnestly there.

20. 子不語怪力亂神。

The Master never talked of goblins, strength, disorder, or spirits.

Author: Confucius (孔夫子); translated by James Legge

The Master said, The highest minds cleave to the Centre, the Common. They have long been rare among the people.

1. 子曰:「雍也可使南面。」仲弓問子桑伯子。子曰:「可也簡。」仲弓曰:「居敬而行 簡,以臨其民,不亦可乎?居簡而行簡,無乃大簡乎?」子曰:「雍之言然。」

The Master said, Yung might fill the seat of a prince. And might Tzu-sang Po-tzu? asked Chung-kung. Yes, said the Master; but he is slack. To be stern to himself, said Chung-kung, and slack in his claims on the people, might do; but to be slack himself and slack with others must surely be too slack. The Master said, What Yung says is true.

2. 哀公問:「弟子孰為好學?」孔子對曰:「有顏回者好學,不遷怒,不貳過。不幸短命 死矣,今也則亡,未聞好學者也。」

Duke Ai asked which disciples loved learning. Confucius answered, Yen Hui loved learning. He did not carry over anger; he made no mistake twice. Alas! his mission was short, he died. Now that he is gone, I hear of no one that loves learning.

3. 子華使於齊,冉子為其母請粟。子曰:「與之釜。」請益。曰:「與之庾。」冉子與之 粟五秉。子曰:「赤之適齊也,乘肥馬,衣輕裘。吾聞之也:君子周急不繼富。」原思為之宰,與之粟九百,辭。子曰:「毋!以與爾鄰里鄉黨乎!」

When Tzu-hua was sent to Ch'i, the disciple Jan asked for grain for his mother. The Master said, Give her six pecks. He asked for more. The Master said, Give her sixteen. Jan gave her eight hundred. The Master said, On his way to Ch'i, Ch'ih was drawn by sleek horses and clad in light furs. I have heard that gentlemen help the needy, not that they swell riches. When Yüan Ssu was made governor he was given nine hundred measures of grain, which he refused. Not so, said the Master: why not take it and give it to thy neighbours and countryfolk?

4. 子謂仲弓,曰:「犁牛之子騂且角,雖欲勿用,山川其舍諸?」

The Master said of Chung-kung, If the calf of a brindled cow be red and horned, though men be shy to offer him, will the hills and streams reject him?

5. 子曰:「回也,其心三月不違仁,其餘則日月至焉而已矣。」

The Master said, For three months together Hui's heart never sinned against love. The others may hold out for a day, or a month, but no more.

6. 季康子問:「仲由可使從政也與?」子曰:「由也果,於從政乎何有?」曰:「賜也可 使從政也與?」曰:「賜也達,於從政乎何有?」曰:「求也可使從政也與?」曰:「求也藝,於從政乎何有?」

Chi K'ang asked whether Chung-yu was fit to govern. The Master said, Yu is firm; what would governing be to him? And is Tz'u fit to govern? Tz'u is thorough; what would governing be to him? And is Ch'iu fit to govern? Ch'in is clever; what would governing be to him?

7. 季氏使閔子騫為費宰。閔子騫曰:「善為我辭焉!如有復我者,則吾必在汶上矣。」

The Chi sent to make Min Tzu-ch'ien governor of Pi. Min Tzu-ch'ien said, Make some good excuse for me. If he sends again I must be across the Wen.

8. 伯牛有疾,子問之,自牖執其手,曰:「亡之,命矣夫!斯人也,而有斯疾也!斯人 也,而有斯疾也!」

When Po-niu was ill the Master asked after him. Grasping his hand through the window, he said, He is going. It is the Bidding; but why this man of such an illness? Why this man of such an illness?

9. 子曰:「賢哉,回也!一簞食,一瓢飲,在陋巷,人不堪其憂,回也不改其樂。賢哉, 回也!」

The Master said. What a man was Hui! A bowl of rice, a gourd of water, in a low alley; man cannot bear such misery! Yet Hui never fell from mirth. What a man he was!

10. 冉求曰:「非不說子之道,力不足也。」子曰:「力不足者,中道而廢。今女畫。」

Jan Ch'iu said, It is not that I take no pleasure in the Master's Way: I want strength. The Master said, He that wants strength faints midway; but thou drawest a line.

11. 子謂子夏曰:「女為君子儒!無為小人儒!」

The Master said to Tzu-hsia, Study to be a gentleman, not as the small man studies.

12. 子游為武城宰。子曰:「女得人焉爾乎?」曰:「有澹臺滅明者,行不由徑,非公事 ,未嘗至於偃之室也。」

When Tzu-yu was governor of Wu-ch'eng, the Master said, Hast thou gotten any men? He answered, I have Tan-t'ai Mieh-ming. He will not take a short cut when walking, and he has never come to my house except on business.

13. 子曰:「孟之反不伐,奔而殿,將入門,策其馬,曰:「『非敢後也,馬不進也。』 」

The Master said, Meng Chih-fan never brags. He was covering the rear in a rout; but on coming to the gate he whipped his horse and cried, Not courage kept me behind; my horse won't go!

14. 子曰:「不有祝鮀之佞,而有宋朝之美,難乎免於今之世矣。」

The Master said, Unless we are glib as the reader T'o and fair as Chao of Sung, escape is hard in the times that be!

15. 子曰:「誰能出不由戶?何莫由斯道也?」

The Master said, Who can go out except by the door? Why is it no one keeps to the Way?

16. 子曰:「質勝文則野,文勝質則史。文質彬彬,然後君子。」

The Master said, Matter outweighing art begets roughness; art outweighing matter begets pedantry. Matter and art well blent make a gentleman.

17. 子曰:「人之生也直,罔之生也幸而免。」

The Master said, Man is born straight. If he grows crooked and yet lives, he is lucky to escape.

18. 子曰:「知之者不如好之者,好之者不如樂之者。」

The Master said, He that knows is below him that loves, and he that loves below him that delights therein.

19. 子曰:「中人以上,可以語上也;中人以下,不可以語上也。」

The Master said, To men above the common we can talk of higher things; to men below the common we must not talk of higher things.

20. 樊遲問知。子曰:「務民之義,敬鬼神而遠之,可謂知矣。」問仁。曰:「仁者先難 而後獲,可謂仁矣。」

Fan Ch'ih asked, What is wisdom? The Master said, To foster right among the people; to honour ghosts and spirits, and yet keep aloof from them, may be called wisdom. He asked, What is love? The Master said, To rank the effort above the prize may be called love.

21. 子曰:「知者樂水,仁者樂山。知者動,仁者靜。知者樂,仁者壽。」

The Master said, Wisdom delights in water; love delights in hills. Wisdom is stirring; love is quiet. Wisdom is merry; love grows old.

22. 子曰:「齊一變,至於魯;魯一變,至於道。」

The Master said, By one revolution Ch'i might grow to be Lu; by one revolution Lu might reach the Way.

23. 子曰:「觚不觚,觚哉!觚哉!」

The Master said, A drinking horn that is no horn! What a horn! What a drinking horn!

24. 宰我問曰:「仁者,雖告之曰,『井有仁焉。』其從之也?」子曰:「何為其然也? 君子可逝也,不可陷也;可欺也,不可罔也。」

Tsai Wo said, If a man of love were told that a man is in a well, would he go in after him? The Master said, Why should he? A gentleman might be got to the well, but not trapped into it, He may be cheated, but not fooled.

25. 子曰:「君子博學於文,約之以禮,亦可以弗畔矣夫!」

The Master said, By breadth of reading and the ties of courtesy, a gentleman is kept, too, from false paths.

26. 子見南子,子路不說。夫子矢之曰:「予所否者,天厭之!天厭之!」

The Master saw Nan-tzu. Tzu-lu was displeased. The Master took an oath, saying, If I have done wrong, may Heaven forsake me, may Heaven forsake me!

27. 子曰:「中庸之為德也,其至矣乎!民鮮久矣。」

The Master said, The highest minds cleave to the Centre, the Common. They have long been rare among the people.

28. 子貢曰:「如有博施於民,而能濟眾,何如?可謂仁乎?」子曰:「何事於仁,必也 聖乎!堯舜其猶病諸!夫仁者,己欲立而立人,己欲達而達人。能近取譬,可謂仁之方也已。」

Tzu-kung said, To treat the people with bounty and help the many, how were that? Could it be called love? The Master said, What has this to do with love? Must it not be holiness? Yao and Shun still yearned for this. Seeking a foothold for self, love finds a foothold for others; seeking light for itself, it enlightens others too. To learn from the near at hand may be called the clue to love.

Author: Confucius (孔夫子); translated by James Legge

1. 子謂公冶長,「可妻也。雖在縲絏之中,非其罪也。」以其子妻之。

Of Kung-yeh Ch'ang the Master said, A girl might be wedded to him. Though he has been in fetters that was not his crime. He gave him his daughter to wed.

2. 子謂南容,「邦有道不廢,邦無道免於刑戮。」以其兄之子妻之。

Of Nan Jung the Master said, When the land keeps the Way he will not be neglected; and if the land loses the Way he will escape punishment and death. He gave him his brother's daughter to wed.

3. 子謂子賤,「君子哉若人!魯無君子者,斯焉取斯?」

Of Tzu-chien the Master said, What a gentleman he is! But if there were no gentlemen in Lu, where could he have picked it up?

4. 子貢問曰:「賜也何如?」子曰:「女器也。」曰:「何器也?」曰:「瑚璉也。」

Tzu-kung asked, And what of me? Thou art a vessel, said the Master. What kind of vessel? A rich temple vessel.

5. 或曰:「雍也仁而不佞。」子曰:「焉用佞?御人以口給,屢憎於人。不知其仁,焉用 佞?」

One said, Yung has love, but he is not glib. The Master said, What is the good of being glib? Fighting men with tongue-craft mostly makes men hate you. Whether love be his I do not know, but what is the good of being glib?

6. 子使漆雕開仕。對曰:「吾斯之未能信。」子說。

The Master moved Ch'i-tiao K'ai to take office. He answered, For this I want confidence. The Master was pleased.

7. 子曰:「道不行,乘桴浮於海。從我者,其由與?」子路聞之喜。子曰:「由也好勇過 我,無所取材。」

The Master said, Forsaken is the Way! I must take ship and stem the seas; and Yu shall go with me. When Tzu-lu heard this he was glad. The Master said, Yu loves daring more than I do, but he is at a loss how to take things.

8. 孟武伯問:「子路仁乎?」子曰:「不知也。」又問。子曰:「由也,千乘之國,可使 治其賦也,不知其仁也。」「求也何如?」子曰:「求也,千室之邑,百乘之家,可使為之宰也,不知其仁也。」「赤也何如?」子曰:「赤也,束帶立於朝,可使與賓客言也,不知其仁也。」

Meng Wu asked whether Tzu-lu had love. I do not know, said the Master. He asked again. A land of a thousand chariots might give Yu charge of its levies; but whether love be his I do not know. And how about Ch'iu? A town of a thousand households, a clan of an hundred chariots might make Ch'iu governor; but whether love be his I do not know. And how about Ch'ih? Standing in the court, girt with his sash, Ch'ih might entertain the guests; but whether love be his I do not know.

9. 子謂子貢曰:「女與回也,孰愈?」對曰:「賜也,何敢望回?回也,聞一以知十,賜 也聞一知二。」子曰:「弗如也,吾與女,弗如也。」

The Master said to Tzu-kung, Which is the better man, thou or Hui? He answered, How dare I look as high as Hui? When Hui hears one thing, he understands ten; when I hear one thing I understand two. The Master said, Thou art not his like. Neither art thou his like, nor am I.

10. 宰予晝寢。子曰:「朽木不可雕也,糞土之牆不可杇也。於予與何誅?」子曰:「始 吾於人也,聽其言而信其行;今吾於人也,聽其言而觀其行。於予與改是。」

Tsai Yü slept in the daytime. The Master said, Rotten wood cannot be carved, nor are dung walls plastered. Why chide with Yü? The Master said, When I first met men I listened to their words and took their deeds on trust. When I meet them now, I listen to their words and watch their deeds. I righted this on Yü.

11. 子曰:「吾未見剛者。」或對曰:「申棖。」子曰:「棖也慾,焉得剛?」

The Master said, I have met no firm man. One answered, Shen Ch'ang. The Master said, Ch'ang is passionate; how can he be firm?

12. 子貢曰:「我不欲人之加諸我也,吾亦欲無加諸人。」子曰:「賜也,非爾所及 也。」

Tzu-kung said, What I do not wish done to me, I likewise wish not to do to others. The Master said, That is still beyond thee, Tz'u.

13. 子貢曰:「夫子之文章,可得而聞也;夫子之言性與天道,不可得而聞也。」

Tzu-kung said, To hear the Master on his art and precepts is granted us; but to hear him on man's nature and the Way of Heaven is not.

14. 子路有聞,未之能行,唯恐有聞。

Until Tzu-lu could do what he had heard, his only fear was to hear more.

15. 子貢問曰:「孔文子何以謂之文也?」子曰:「敏而好學,不恥下問,是以謂之文 也。」

Tzu-kung asked, Why was K'ung-wen called cultured? The Master said, He was quick and loved learning; he was not ashamed to ask those beneath him: that is why he was called cultured.

16. 子謂子產有君子之道四焉:其行己也恭,其事上也敬,其養民也惠,其使民也義。

The Master said, Of the ways of a gentleman Tzu-ch'an had four. His life was modest; he honoured those that he served. He was kind in feeding the people, and he was just in his calls upon them.

17. 子曰:「晏平仲善與人交,久而敬之。」

The Master said, Yen P'ing was a good friend. The longer he knew you, the more attentive he grew.

18. 子曰:「藏文仲居蔡,山節藻梲,何如其知也?」

The Master said, Tsang Wen lodged his tortoise with hills on the pillars and reeds on the uprights: was this his wisdom?

19. 子張問曰:「令尹子文三仕為令尹,無喜色;三已之,無慍色。舊令尹之政,必以告 新令尹。何如?」子曰:「忠矣。」曰:「仁矣乎?」曰:「未知,焉得仁!」「崔子弒齊君,陳文子有馬十乘,棄而違之。至於他邦,則曰,『猶吾大夫崔子也。』違之,之一邦,則又曰:『猶吾大夫崔子也。』違之。何如?」子曰:「清矣。」曰:「仁矣乎?」子曰:「未知,焉得仁?」

Tzu-chang said, The chief minister, Tzu-wen, was thrice made minister without showing gladness, thrice he left office with unmoved looks. He always told the new ministers how the old ones had governed: how was that? He was faithful, said the Master. But was it love? I do not know, said the Master: how should this amount to love? When Ts'ui murdered the lord of Ch'i, Ch'en Wen threw up ten teams of horses and left the land. On coming to another kingdom he said, 'Like my lord Ts'ui,' and left it. On coming to a second kingdom he said again, 'Like my lord Ts'ui,' and left it: how was that? He was clean, said the Master. But was it love? I do not know, said the Master: how should this amount to love?

20. 季文子三思而後行。子聞之,曰:「再斯可矣。」

Chi Wen thought thrice before acting. On hearing this the Master said, Twice is enough.

21. 子曰:「甯武子,邦有道則知,邦無道則愚。其知可及也,其愚不可及也。」

The Master said, Whilst the land kept the Way Ning Wu showed wisdom; when his land lost the Way he grew simple. His wisdom we may come up to; such simplicity is beyond us.

22. 子在陳曰:「歸與!歸與!吾黨之小子狂簡,斐然成章,不知所以裁之。」

When he was in Ch'en the Master said, Home, I must go home! Zealous, or rash, or finished scholars, my young sons at home do not know what pruning they still need!

23. 子曰:「伯夷叔齊,不念舊惡,怨是用希。」

The Master said, Because Po-yi and Shu-ch'i never remembered old wickedness they made few enemies.

24. 子曰:「孰謂微生高直?或乞醯焉,乞諸其鄰而與之。」

The Master said, Who can call Wei-sheng Kao straight? A man begged him for vinegar: he begged it of a neighbour, and gave it.

25. 子曰:「巧言、令色、足恭,左丘明恥之,丘亦恥之。匿怨而友其人,左丘明恥之, 丘亦恥之。」

The Master said, Smooth words, fawning looks, and overdone humility, Tso Ch'iu-ming thought shameful, and so do I. He thought it shameful to hide ill-will and ape friendship, and so do I.

26. 顏淵、季路侍。子曰:「盍各言爾志?」子路曰:「願車馬、衣輕裘,與朋友共,敝 之而無憾。」顏淵曰:「願無伐善,無施勞。」子路曰:「願聞子之志。」子曰:「老者安之,朋友信之,少者懷之。」

As Yen Yüan and Chi-lu were sitting with him, the Master said, Why not each of you tell me thy wishes? Tzu-lu said, I should like carriages and horses, and clothes of light fur to share with my friends, and, if they spoiled them, not to get angry. Yen Yüan said, I should like to make no boast of talent or show or merit. Tzu-lu said, We should like to hear your wishes, Sir. The Master said, To give the old folk peace, to be true to friends, and to have a heart for the young.

27. 子曰:「已矣乎!吾未見能見其過,而內自訟者也。」

The Master said, It is finished! I have met no one that can see his own faults and arraign himself within.

28. 子曰:「十室之邑,必有忠信如丘者焉,不如丘之好學也。」

The Master said, In a hamlet of ten houses there must be men that are as faithful and true men as I, but they do not love learning as I do.

Author: Confucius (孔夫子); translated by James Legge

1. 子曰:「里仁為美。擇不處仁,焉得知?」

The Master said, Love makes a spot beautiful: who chooses not to dwell in love, has he got wisdom?

2. 子曰:「不仁者,不可以久處約,不可以長處樂。仁者安仁,知者利仁。」

The Master said, Loveless men cannot bear need long, they cannot bear fortune long. Loving men find peace in love, the wise find profit in it.

3. 子曰:「惟仁者,能好人,能惡人。」

The Master said, Love alone can love others, or hate others.

4. 子曰:「苟志於仁矣,無惡也。」

The Master said, A will set on love is free from evil.

5. 子曰:「富與貴,是人之所欲也,不以其道得之,不處也。貧與賤,是人之惡也,不以 其道得之,不去也。君子去仁,惡乎成名。君子無終食之間違仁,造次必於是,顛沛必於是。」

The Master said, Wealth and honours are what men desire; but do not go from the Way, to keep them. Lowliness and want are hated by men; but do not go from the Way, to escape them. Shorn of love, is a gentleman worthy of the name? Not for one moment may a gentleman sin against love; he must not do so in flurry and haste, nor do so in utter overthrow.

6. 子曰:「我未見好仁者,惡不仁者。好仁者,無以尚之;惡不仁者,其為仁矣,不使不 仁者加乎其身。有能一日用其力於仁矣乎?我未見力不足者。蓋有之矣,我未之見也。」

The Master said, I have seen no one that loves love and hates uncharity. He that loves love will set nothing higher. The hater of uncharity is so given to love that no uncharity can enter into his life. If a man were to give his strength to love for one day, I have seen no one whose strength would fail him. There may be such men, but I have not seen one.

7. 子曰:「人之過也,各於其黨。觀過,斯知仁矣。」

The Master said, A man and his faults are of a piece. By watching his faults we learn whether love be his.

8. 子曰:「朝聞道,夕死可矣!」

The Master said, To learn the Way at daybreak and die at eve were enough.

9. 子曰:「士志於道,而恥惡衣惡食者,未足與議也!」

The Master said, A knight in quest of the Way, who is ashamed of bad clothes and bad food, it is idle talking to.

10. 子曰:「君子之於天下也,無適也,無莫也,義之於比。」

The Master said, A gentleman has no likes or dislikes below heaven. He follows right.

11. 子曰:「君子懷德,小人懷土;君子懷刑,小人懷惠。」

The Master said, The gentleman cherishes mind, the small man cherishes dirt. Gentlemen trust in the law, the small man trusts in favour.

12. 子曰:「放於利而行,多怨。」

The Master said, The chase of gain is rich in hate.

13. 子曰:「能以禮讓為國乎,何有!不能以禮讓為國,如禮何!」

The Master said, What is it to sway a kingdom by courteous yielding? If we cannot sway a kingdom by courteous yielding, what is our courtesy worth?

14. 子曰:「不患無位,患所以立;不患莫己知,求為可知也。」

The Master said, Care not for want of place; care for thy readiness to fill one. Care not for being unknown, but seek to be worthy of note.

15. 子曰:「參乎!吾道一以貫之。」曾子曰:「唯。」子出。門人問曰:「何謂也?」 曾子曰:「夫子之道,忠恕而已矣。」

The Master said, One line, Shen, runs through my Way. Yes, said Tseng-tzu. After the Master had left, the disciples asked what was meant. Tseng-tzu said, The Master's Way is no more than faithfulness and fellow-feeling.

16. 子曰:「君子喻於義,小人喻於利。」

The Master said, The gentleman is learned in right; the small man is learned in gain.

17. 子曰:「見賢思齊焉,見不賢而內自省也。」

The Master said, At sight of worth, think to grow like it; at sight of baseness, search thyself within.

18. 子曰:「事父母幾諫,見志不從,又敬不違,勞而不怨。」

The Master said, A father or a mother may be gently chidden. If thou seest they have no will to follow thee, be the more lowly, but do not give way; nor murmur at the trouble they give thee.

19. 子曰:「父母在,不遠遊,遊必有方。」

The Master said, Whilst thy father and mother are living, do not wander afar. If thou must travel, hold a set course.

20. 子曰:「三年無改於父之道,可謂孝矣。」

The Master said, He that changes nothing in his father's ways for three years may be called pious.

21. 子曰:「父母之年,不可不知也:一則以喜,一則以懼。」

The Master said, A father and mother's years must be borne in mind; with gladness on the one hand and fear on the other.

22. 子曰:「古者言之不出,恥躬之不逮也。」

The Master said, The men of old were loth to speak, for not to live up to their words would have shamed them.

23. 子曰:「以約失之者,鮮矣。」

The Master said, We shall seldom get lost if we hold to main lines.

24. 子曰:「君子欲訥於言,而敏於行。」

The Master said, A gentleman wishes to be slow to speak and quick to do.

25. 子曰:「德不孤,必有鄰。」

The Master said, A great soul is never friendless: he has always neighbours.

26. 子游曰:「事君數,斯辱矣;朋友數,斯疏矣。」

Tzu-yu said, Nagging at kings brings disgrace, nagging at friends estrangement.

1. 子曰:「為政以德,譬如北辰,居其所而眾星共之。」
The Master said, He that rules by mind is like the north star, steady in his seat, whilst the stars all bend to him.

2. 子曰:「詩三百,一言以蔽之,曰:思無邪。」
The Master said, The three hundred poems are summed up in the one line, Think no evil.

3. 子曰:「道之以政,齊之以刑,民免而無恥;道之以德,齊之以禮,有恥且格。」
The Master said, Guide the people by law, aline them by punishment; they may shun crime, but they will want shame. Guide them by mind, aline them by courtesy; they will learn shame and grow good.

4. 子曰:「吾十有五而志于學,三十而立,四十而不惑,五十而知天命,六十而耳順,七 十而從心所欲,不踰矩。」
The Master said, At fifteen, I had the will to learn; at thirty, I could stand; at forty, I had no doubts; at fifty, I understood the heavenly Bidding; at sixty, my ears were opened; at seventy, I could do as my heart lusted without trespassing from the square.

5. 孟懿子問孝。子曰:「無違。」樊遲御,子告之曰:「孟孫問孝於我,我對曰,『無 違。』」樊遲曰:「何謂也?」子曰:「生,事之以禮;死,葬之以禮,祭之以禮。」
Meng Yi asked the duty of a son.
The Master said, Not to transgress.
As Fan Chi'ih was driving him, the Master said, Meng-sun asked me the duty of a son; I answered, Not to transgress.
What did ye mean? said Fan Chi'ih.
To serve our father and mother with courtesy whilst they live; to bury them with courtesy when they die, and to worship them with courtesy.

6. 孟武伯問孝。子曰:「父母唯其疾之憂。」
Meng Wu asked the duty of a son.
The Master said, He should not grieve his father and mother by anything but illness.

7. 子游問孝。子曰:「今之孝者,是謂能養。至於犬馬,皆能有養;不敬,何以別乎。」
Tzu-yu asked the duty of a son.
The Master said, He that can feed his parents is now called a good son. But both dogs and horses are fed, and unless we honour our parents, what is the difference?

8. 子夏問孝。子曰:「色難。有事,弟子服其勞;有酒食,先生饌,曾是以為孝乎?」
Tzu-hsia asked the duty of a son.
The Master said, Our manner is the hard part. For the young to be a stay in toil and leave the wine and food to their elders, is this to fulfill their duty?

9. 子曰:「吾與回言終日,不違如愚。退而省其私,亦足以發,回也不愚。」
The Master said, If I talk all day to Hui, like a dullard, he never differs from me. But when he is gone, if I watch him when alone, he can carry out what I taught. No, Hui is no dullard!

10. 子曰:「視其所以,觀其所由,察其所安。人焉廋哉?人焉廋哉?」
The Master said, See what he does; watch what moves him; search what pleases him: can the man lie hidden? Can the man lie hidden?

11. 子曰:「溫故而知新,可以為師矣。」
The Master said, To keep old knowledge warm and get new makes the teacher.

12. 子曰:「君子不器。」
The Master said, A gentleman is not a vessel.

13. 子貢問君子。子曰:「先行其言,而後從之。」
Tzu-kung asked, What is a gentleman?
The Master said, He puts words into deeds first, and follows these up with words.

14. 子曰:「君子周而不比,小人比而不周。」
The Master said, A gentleman is broad and fair; the small man takes sides and is narrow.

15. 子曰:「學而不思則罔,思而不學則殆。」
The Master said, Learning without thought is naught; thought without learning is dangerous.

16. 子曰:「攻乎異端,斯害也己。」
The Master said, To fight strange doctrines does harm.

17. 子曰:「由!誨女知之乎!知之為知之,不知為不知,是知也。」
The Master said, Yu, shall I teach thee what is wisdom? To know what we know, and know what we do not know, is wisdom.

18. 子張學干祿。子曰:「多聞闕疑,慎言其餘,則寡尤。多見闕殆,慎行其餘,則寡 悔。言寡尤,行寡悔,祿在其中矣。」
Tsu-chang learned with an eye to pay.
The Master said, Hear much, leave all that is doubtful alone, speak warily of everything else, and few will be offended. See much, leave all that is dangerous alone, deal warily with everything else, and thou wilt have little to rue. If thy words seldom give offence, and thy deeds leave little to rue, pay will follow.

19. 哀公問曰:「何為則民服?」孔子對曰:「舉直錯諸枉,則民服;舉枉錯諸直,則民 不 服。」
Duke Ai asked, What should I do to win the people?
Confucius answered, Lift up the straight, put away the crooked; and the people will be won. Lift up the crooked, put away the straight; and the people will not be won.

20. 季康子問:「使民敬忠以勸,如之何?」子曰:「臨之以莊則敬,孝慈則忠,舉善而 教不能則勸。」
Chi K'ang asked how to make the people lowly, faithful and painstaking.
The Master said, Meet them with dignity, they will be lowly; be a good son and merciful, they will be faithful; lift up the good and teach the unskilled, and they will take pains.

21. 或謂孔子曰:「子奚不為政?」子曰:「書云:『孝乎惟孝,友于兄弟,施於有 政。』是亦為政,奚其為為政?」
One said to Confucius, Why do ye not govern, Sir?
The Master said, What does the Book say of a good son? 'To be a good son and a friend to thy brothers is to show how to govern.' This, too, is to govern. Must one be in office to govern?

22. 子曰:「人而無信,不知其可也。大車無輗,小車無軏,其何以行之哉?」
The Master said, A man without truth, I know not what good he is! A cart without a crosspole, a carriage without a yoke, how can they be moved?

23. 子張問:「十世可知也?」子曰:「殷因於夏禮,所損益可知也;周因於殷禮,所損 益可知也。其或繼周者,雖百世,可知也。」
Tzu-chang asked whether we can know what is to be ten generations hence.
The Master said, The Yin took over the manners of the Hsia; the harm and the good that they did them can be known. The Chou took over the manners of the Yin; the harm and the good that they did them can be known. And we may know what shall be, even an hundred generations hence, whoever follows Chou.

24. 子曰:「非其鬼而祭之,諂也。見義不為,無勇也。」
The Master said, To worship the ghosts of men not akin to us is fawning. To see the right and not do it is want of courage.

Author: Confucius (孔夫子); translated by James Legge

1. 子曰:「學而時習之,不亦說乎?有朋自遠方來,不亦樂乎?人不知而不慍,不亦君子 乎?」

The Master said, To learn and then do, is not that a pleasure? When friends come from afar do we not rejoice? To live unknown and not fret, is not that to be a gentleman?

2. 有子曰:「其為人也孝弟,而好犯上者,鮮矣;不好犯上,而好作亂者,未之有也。 君子務本,本立而道生。孝弟也者,其為仁之本與!」

Yu-tzu said. Few men that are good sons and good brothers are fond of withstanding those over them. A man that is not fond of withstanding those over him and is yet fond of broils is nowhere found. A gentleman heeds the roots. When the root has taken, the Way is born. And to be a good son and a good brother, is not that the root of love?

3. 子曰:「巧言、令色,鮮矣仁!」

The Master said, Smooth words and fawning looks are seldom found with love.

4. 曾子曰:「吾日三省吾身,為人謀而不忠乎?與朋友交而不信乎?傳不習乎?」

Tseng-tzu said, Thrice daily I ask myself: In dealing for others, have I been unfaithful? Have I been untrue to friends? Do I practise what I preach?

5. 子曰:「道千乘之國,敬事而信,節用而愛人,使民以時。」

The Master said, To guide a land of a thousand chariots, honour business and be true; spend little and love men; time thy calls on the people.

6. 子曰:「弟子入則孝,出則弟,謹而信,汎愛眾,而親仁。行有餘力,則以學文。」

The Master said, The young should be dutiful at home, modest abroad, careful and true, overflowing in kindness for all, but in brotherhood with love. And if they have strength to spare they should spend it on the arts.

7. 子夏曰:「賢賢易色,事父母能竭其力,事君能致其身,與朋友交言而有信,雖曰未 學,吾必謂之學矣。」

Tzu-hsia said, If a man eschews beauty and honours worth, if he serves his father and mother with all his strength, if he is ready to give his life for his lord, and keeps faith with his friends, though others may say he has no learning, I must call him learned.

8. 子曰:「君子不重,則不威,學則不固。主忠信,無友不如己者,過則勿憚改。」

The Master said, A gentleman will not be looked up to unless he is staid, nor will his learning be sound. Put faithfulness and truth first; have no friends unlike thyself; be not ashamed to mend thy faults.

9. 曾子曰:「慎終追遠,民德歸厚矣。」

Tseng-tzu said, Heed the dead, follow up the past, and the soul of the people will again grow great.

10. 子禽問於子貢曰:「夫子至於是邦也,必聞其政,求之與?抑與之與?子貢曰:「夫 子溫良恭儉讓以得之,夫子之求之也,其諸異乎人之求之與?」

Tzu-ch'in said to Tzu-kung, When he comes to a country the Master always hears how it is governed; does he ask, or is it told him? Tzu-kung said, The Master gets it by his warmth and honesty, by politeness, modesty and yielding. The way the Master asks is unlike other men's asking.

11. 子曰:「父在觀其志,父沒觀其行,三年無改於父之道,可謂孝矣。」

The Master said, Whilst thy father lives look for his purpose; when he is gone, look how he walked. To change nothing in thy father's ways for three years may be called pious.

12. 有子曰:「禮之用,和為貴。先王之道,斯為美,小大由之,有所不行,知和而和, 不以禮節之,亦不可行也。」

Yu-tzu said, To behave with ease is the best part of courtesy. This was the beauty of the old kings' ways; this they followed in small and great. But knowing this, it will not do to give way to ease, unchecked by courtesy. This too is wrong.

13. 有子曰:「信近於義,言可復也。恭近於禮,遠恥辱也。因不失其親,亦可宗也。」

Yu-tzu said, If pledges are close to right, word can be kept. If attentions are close to courtesy, shame will be kept far. If we do not choose our leaders wrong, we may worship them too.

14. 子曰:「君子食無求飽,居無求安,敏於事而慎於言,就有道而正焉,可謂好學也 已。」

The Master said, A gentleman that does not seek to eat his fill, nor look for ease in his home, who is earnest at work and careful of speech, who walks with those that keep the Way, and is guided by them, may be said to love learning.

15. 子貢曰:「貧而無諂,富而無驕,何如?」子曰:「可也,未若貧而樂,富而好禮者 也。」子貢曰:「詩云:『如切如磋,如琢如磨』,其斯之謂與?」子曰:「賜也,始可與言詩已矣,告諸往而知來者。」

Tzu-kung said, Poor, but no flatterer; rich, but not proud: how would that be? It would do, said the Master; but better still were poor but merry; rich, but loving courtesy. Tzu-kung said, When the poem says: If ye cut, if ye file, If ye polish and grind, is that what is meant? The Master said, Now I can begin to talk of poetry to Tz'u. Tell him what is gone, and he knows what shall come.

16. 子曰:「不患人之不己之,患不知人也。」

The Master said, Not to be known is no sorrow. My sorrow is not knowing men.

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