2012daily's blog

Author/Compiler: Tihomir Dimitrov (http://nobelists.net; also see http://scigod.com/index.php/sgj/issue/view/3)


Nobel Prize: Christian Anfinsen (1916–1995) was awarded the 1972 Nobel Prize in Chemistry “for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation.” Anfinsen is a pioneer in the study of enzymes.

Nationality: American

Education: Ph.D. in biochemistry, Harvard University, 1943

Occupation: Professor of Chemistry at Harvard University and University of Pennsylvania; Researcher at Carlsberg University (Denmark), National Institute of Health (Bethesda) and National Institute of Arthritis, Metabolism and Digestive Diseases; Professor of Biology at Johns Hopkins University from 1982 until his death


1. To the question, “Many prominent scientists - including Darwin, Einstein, and Planck - have considered the concept of God very seriously. What are your thoughts on the concept of God and on the existence of God?” Christian Anfinsen replied:

“I think only an idiot can be an atheist. We must admit that there exists an incomprehensible power or force with limitless foresight and knowledge that started the whole universe going in the first place.” (Anfinsen, as cited in Margenau and Varghese, ‘Cosmos, Bios, Theos’, 1997, 139).

2. Prof. Anfinsen wrote to the compilers of the scientific anthology ‘Cosmos, Bios, Theos’ (1997) this:

“I enclose a favorite quotation from Einstein that agrees almost completely with my own point of view.

Einstein himself once said that ‘The most beautiful and most profound emotion we can experience is the sensation of the mystical. It is the sower of all true science. He to whom this emotion is a stranger, who can no longer stand rapt in awe, is as good as dead. That deeply emotional conviction of the presence of a superior reasoning power, which is revealed in the incomprehensible Universe, forms my idea of God’.” (Anfinsen, as cited in Margenau and Varghese, ‘Cosmos, Bios, Theos’, 1997, 140).

3. In his letter of 28 March 1989 to Prof. Henry Margenau (compiler of the scientific anthology ‘Cosmos, Bios, Theos’), Anfinsen wrote:

“Thank you for your letter of March 13 and your kind words about my small contribution to your anthology. I can think of little more to add to my final point having to do with the nature of God and the existence of God. Clearly, an all-powerful, all-knowing entity must exist to explain our existence.” (Anfinsen 1989).

4. In 1979, Anfinsen converted to Orthodox Judaism, a commitment he retained for the rest of his life; he maintained that he had been deeply impressed by the “the history, practice and intensity of Judaism.”

On 16 November 1995, in her Memorial speech for Christian Anfinsen at Memorial Garden Dedication, Weizmann Institute, Libby Anfinsen (Prof. Anfinsen’s wife) said:

“His religious background is interesting in that his Jewish maternal grandmother’s family disappeared when the Nazis invaded Bergen, Norway. His parents were Bible reading Lutherans, and he himself was an agnostic until the later 70’s when he studied and converted to traditional Judaism. He felt the following quote from Einstein accurately expressed his beliefs. ‘The most beautiful and most profound emotion we can experience is the sensation of the mystical. It is the sower of all true science. He to whom this emotion is a stranger, who can no longer stand rapt in awe, is as good as dead. That deeply emotional conviction of the presence of a superior reasoning power, which is revealed in the incomprehensible Universe, forms my idea of God.’ He xeroxed and distributed this quote to many.” (Libby Anfinsen, 1995).

Jan 20 '12 · Tags: existence, god, nobel laureate
Author: Laozi (老子); translated by James Legge

(Those who) possessed the highest benevolence were (always seeking) to carry it out, and had no need to be doing so. (Those who) possessed the highest righteousness were (always seeking) to carry it out, and had need to be so doing.

第三十六章 將欲歙之,必固張之﹔將欲弱之,必固強之﹔將欲廢之,必固興之﹔將欲 取之,必固與之。是謂微明。柔勝剛,弱勝強。魚不可脫于淵,國之利器 ,不可以示人。

Chapter 36 1. When one is about to take an inspiration, he is sure to make a (previous) expiration; when he is going to weaken another, he will first strengthen him; when he is going to overthrow another, he will first have raised him up; when he is going to despoil another, he will first have made gifts to him:—this is called 'Hiding the light (of his procedure).' 2. The soft overcomes the hard; and the weak the strong. 3. Fishes should not be taken from the deep; instruments for the profit of a state should not be shown to the people.

第三十七章 道常無為而無不為。侯王若能守之,萬物將自化。化而欲作,吾將鎮之以 無名之朴。鎮之以無名之朴,夫亦將不欲。不欲以靜,天下將自正。

Chapter 37 1. The Tao in its regular course does nothing (for the sake of doing it), and so there is nothing which it does not do. 2. If princes and kings were able to maintain it, all things would of themselves be transformed by them. 3. If this transformation became to me an object of desire, I would express the desire by the nameless simplicity. Simplicity without a name Is free from all external aim. With no desire, at rest and still, All things go right as of their will.

第三十八章 上德不德,是以有德﹔下德不失德,是以無德。上德無為而無以為﹔下德 無為而有以為。上仁為之而無以為﹔上義為之而有以為。上禮為之而莫之 應,則攘臂而扔之。故失道而后德,失德而后仁,失仁而后義,失義而后 禮。夫禮者,忠信之薄,而亂之首。前識者,道之華,而愚之始。是以大 丈夫處其厚,不居其薄﹔處其實,不居其華。故去彼取此。

Chapter 38 1. (Those who) possessed in highest degree the attributes (of the Tao) did not (seek) to show them, and therefore they possessed them (in fullest measure). (Those who) possessed in a lower degree those attributes (sought how) not to lose them, and therefore they did not possess them (in fullest measure). 2. (Those who) possessed in the highest degree those attributes did nothing (with a purpose), and had no need to do anything. (Those who) possessed them in a lower degree were (always) doing, and had need to be so doing. 3. (Those who) possessed the highest benevolence were (always seeking) to carry it out, and had no need to be doing so. (Those who) possessed the highest righteousness were (always seeking) to carry it out, and had need to be so doing. 4. (Those who) possessed the highest (sense of) propriety were (always seeking) to show it, and when men did not respond to it, they bared the arm and marched up to them. 5. Thus it was that when the Tao was lost, its attributes appeared; when its attributes were lost, benevolence appeared; when benevolence was lost, righteousness appeared; and when righteousness was lost, the proprieties appeared. 6. Now propriety is the attenuated form of leal-heartedness and good faith, and is also the commencement of disorder; swift apprehension is (only) a flower of the Tao, and is the beginning of stupidity. 7. Thus it is that the Great man abides by what is solid, and eschews what is flimsy; dwells with the fruit and not with the flower. It is thus that he puts away the one and makes choice of the other.

第三十九章 昔之得一者:天得一以清﹔地得一以寧﹔神得一以靈﹔谷得一以盈﹔萬物 得一以生﹔侯王得一以為天下正。其致之也,天無以清,將恐裂﹔地無以 寧,將恐廢﹔神無以靈,將恐歇﹔谷無以盈,將恐竭﹔萬物無以生,將恐 滅﹔侯王無以貞,將恐蹶。故貴以賤為本,高以下為基。是以侯王自稱孤 、寡、不穀。此非以賤為本邪?非乎?故致譽無譽。是故不欲琭琭如玉, 珞珞如石。

Chapter 39 1. The things which from of old have got the One (the Tao) are— Heaven which by it is bright and pure; Earth rendered thereby firm and sure; Spirits with powers by it supplied; Valleys kept full throughout their void All creatures which through it do live Princes and kings who from it get The model which to all they give. All these are the results of the One (Tao). 2. If heaven were not thus pure, it soon would rend; If earth were not thus sure, 'twould break and bend; Without these powers, the spirits soon would fail; If not so filled, the drought would parch each vale; Without that life, creatures would pass away; Princes and kings, without that moral sway, However grand and high, would all decay. 3. Thus it is that dignity finds its (firm) root in its (previous) meanness, and what is lofty finds its stability in the lowness (from which it rises). Hence princes and kings call themselves 'Orphans,' 'Men of small virtue,' and as 'Carriages without a nave.' Is not this an acknowledgment that in their considering themselves mean they see the foundation of their dignity? So it is that in the enumeration of the different parts of a carriage we do not come on what makes it answer the ends of a carriage. They do not wish to show themselves elegant-looking as jade, but (prefer) to be coarse-looking as an (ordinary) stone.

第四十章 反者道之動﹔弱者道之用。天下萬物生于有,有生于無。

Chapter 40 1. The movement of the Tao By contraries proceeds; And weakness marks the course Of Tao's mighty deeds. 2. All things under heaven sprang from It as existing (and named); that existence sprang from It as non-existent (and not named).

Jan 19 '12 · Tags: dao de jing, laozi, 老子
Author: Confucius (孔夫子); translated by James Legge

The Master said, The highest minds cleave to the Centre, the Common. They have long been rare among the people.

1. 子曰:「雍也可使南面。」仲弓問子桑伯子。子曰:「可也簡。」仲弓曰:「居敬而行 簡,以臨其民,不亦可乎?居簡而行簡,無乃大簡乎?」子曰:「雍之言然。」

The Master said, Yung might fill the seat of a prince. And might Tzu-sang Po-tzu? asked Chung-kung. Yes, said the Master; but he is slack. To be stern to himself, said Chung-kung, and slack in his claims on the people, might do; but to be slack himself and slack with others must surely be too slack. The Master said, What Yung says is true.

2. 哀公問:「弟子孰為好學?」孔子對曰:「有顏回者好學,不遷怒,不貳過。不幸短命 死矣,今也則亡,未聞好學者也。」

Duke Ai asked which disciples loved learning. Confucius answered, Yen Hui loved learning. He did not carry over anger; he made no mistake twice. Alas! his mission was short, he died. Now that he is gone, I hear of no one that loves learning.

3. 子華使於齊,冉子為其母請粟。子曰:「與之釜。」請益。曰:「與之庾。」冉子與之 粟五秉。子曰:「赤之適齊也,乘肥馬,衣輕裘。吾聞之也:君子周急不繼富。」原思為之宰,與之粟九百,辭。子曰:「毋!以與爾鄰里鄉黨乎!」

When Tzu-hua was sent to Ch'i, the disciple Jan asked for grain for his mother. The Master said, Give her six pecks. He asked for more. The Master said, Give her sixteen. Jan gave her eight hundred. The Master said, On his way to Ch'i, Ch'ih was drawn by sleek horses and clad in light furs. I have heard that gentlemen help the needy, not that they swell riches. When Yüan Ssu was made governor he was given nine hundred measures of grain, which he refused. Not so, said the Master: why not take it and give it to thy neighbours and countryfolk?

4. 子謂仲弓,曰:「犁牛之子騂且角,雖欲勿用,山川其舍諸?」

The Master said of Chung-kung, If the calf of a brindled cow be red and horned, though men be shy to offer him, will the hills and streams reject him?

5. 子曰:「回也,其心三月不違仁,其餘則日月至焉而已矣。」

The Master said, For three months together Hui's heart never sinned against love. The others may hold out for a day, or a month, but no more.

6. 季康子問:「仲由可使從政也與?」子曰:「由也果,於從政乎何有?」曰:「賜也可 使從政也與?」曰:「賜也達,於從政乎何有?」曰:「求也可使從政也與?」曰:「求也藝,於從政乎何有?」

Chi K'ang asked whether Chung-yu was fit to govern. The Master said, Yu is firm; what would governing be to him? And is Tz'u fit to govern? Tz'u is thorough; what would governing be to him? And is Ch'iu fit to govern? Ch'in is clever; what would governing be to him?

7. 季氏使閔子騫為費宰。閔子騫曰:「善為我辭焉!如有復我者,則吾必在汶上矣。」

The Chi sent to make Min Tzu-ch'ien governor of Pi. Min Tzu-ch'ien said, Make some good excuse for me. If he sends again I must be across the Wen.

8. 伯牛有疾,子問之,自牖執其手,曰:「亡之,命矣夫!斯人也,而有斯疾也!斯人 也,而有斯疾也!」

When Po-niu was ill the Master asked after him. Grasping his hand through the window, he said, He is going. It is the Bidding; but why this man of such an illness? Why this man of such an illness?

9. 子曰:「賢哉,回也!一簞食,一瓢飲,在陋巷,人不堪其憂,回也不改其樂。賢哉, 回也!」

The Master said. What a man was Hui! A bowl of rice, a gourd of water, in a low alley; man cannot bear such misery! Yet Hui never fell from mirth. What a man he was!

10. 冉求曰:「非不說子之道,力不足也。」子曰:「力不足者,中道而廢。今女畫。」

Jan Ch'iu said, It is not that I take no pleasure in the Master's Way: I want strength. The Master said, He that wants strength faints midway; but thou drawest a line.

11. 子謂子夏曰:「女為君子儒!無為小人儒!」

The Master said to Tzu-hsia, Study to be a gentleman, not as the small man studies.

12. 子游為武城宰。子曰:「女得人焉爾乎?」曰:「有澹臺滅明者,行不由徑,非公事 ,未嘗至於偃之室也。」

When Tzu-yu was governor of Wu-ch'eng, the Master said, Hast thou gotten any men? He answered, I have Tan-t'ai Mieh-ming. He will not take a short cut when walking, and he has never come to my house except on business.

13. 子曰:「孟之反不伐,奔而殿,將入門,策其馬,曰:「『非敢後也,馬不進也。』 」

The Master said, Meng Chih-fan never brags. He was covering the rear in a rout; but on coming to the gate he whipped his horse and cried, Not courage kept me behind; my horse won't go!

14. 子曰:「不有祝鮀之佞,而有宋朝之美,難乎免於今之世矣。」

The Master said, Unless we are glib as the reader T'o and fair as Chao of Sung, escape is hard in the times that be!

15. 子曰:「誰能出不由戶?何莫由斯道也?」

The Master said, Who can go out except by the door? Why is it no one keeps to the Way?

16. 子曰:「質勝文則野,文勝質則史。文質彬彬,然後君子。」

The Master said, Matter outweighing art begets roughness; art outweighing matter begets pedantry. Matter and art well blent make a gentleman.

17. 子曰:「人之生也直,罔之生也幸而免。」

The Master said, Man is born straight. If he grows crooked and yet lives, he is lucky to escape.

18. 子曰:「知之者不如好之者,好之者不如樂之者。」

The Master said, He that knows is below him that loves, and he that loves below him that delights therein.

19. 子曰:「中人以上,可以語上也;中人以下,不可以語上也。」

The Master said, To men above the common we can talk of higher things; to men below the common we must not talk of higher things.

20. 樊遲問知。子曰:「務民之義,敬鬼神而遠之,可謂知矣。」問仁。曰:「仁者先難 而後獲,可謂仁矣。」

Fan Ch'ih asked, What is wisdom? The Master said, To foster right among the people; to honour ghosts and spirits, and yet keep aloof from them, may be called wisdom. He asked, What is love? The Master said, To rank the effort above the prize may be called love.

21. 子曰:「知者樂水,仁者樂山。知者動,仁者靜。知者樂,仁者壽。」

The Master said, Wisdom delights in water; love delights in hills. Wisdom is stirring; love is quiet. Wisdom is merry; love grows old.

22. 子曰:「齊一變,至於魯;魯一變,至於道。」

The Master said, By one revolution Ch'i might grow to be Lu; by one revolution Lu might reach the Way.

23. 子曰:「觚不觚,觚哉!觚哉!」

The Master said, A drinking horn that is no horn! What a horn! What a drinking horn!

24. 宰我問曰:「仁者,雖告之曰,『井有仁焉。』其從之也?」子曰:「何為其然也? 君子可逝也,不可陷也;可欺也,不可罔也。」

Tsai Wo said, If a man of love were told that a man is in a well, would he go in after him? The Master said, Why should he? A gentleman might be got to the well, but not trapped into it, He may be cheated, but not fooled.

25. 子曰:「君子博學於文,約之以禮,亦可以弗畔矣夫!」

The Master said, By breadth of reading and the ties of courtesy, a gentleman is kept, too, from false paths.

26. 子見南子,子路不說。夫子矢之曰:「予所否者,天厭之!天厭之!」

The Master saw Nan-tzu. Tzu-lu was displeased. The Master took an oath, saying, If I have done wrong, may Heaven forsake me, may Heaven forsake me!

27. 子曰:「中庸之為德也,其至矣乎!民鮮久矣。」

The Master said, The highest minds cleave to the Centre, the Common. They have long been rare among the people.

28. 子貢曰:「如有博施於民,而能濟眾,何如?可謂仁乎?」子曰:「何事於仁,必也 聖乎!堯舜其猶病諸!夫仁者,己欲立而立人,己欲達而達人。能近取譬,可謂仁之方也已。」

Tzu-kung said, To treat the people with bounty and help the many, how were that? Could it be called love? The Master said, What has this to do with love? Must it not be holiness? Yao and Shun still yearned for this. Seeking a foothold for self, love finds a foothold for others; seeking light for itself, it enlightens others too. To learn from the near at hand may be called the clue to love.

Jan 18 '12 · Tags: analects, confucian, 孔夫子
Author/Compiler: Tihomir Dimitrov (http://nobelists.net; also see http://scigod.com/index.php/sgj/issue/view/3)


Nobel Prize: Sir Derek Barton (1918–1998) won the 1969 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his contribution to the development of the conformational analysis (the study of the three-dimensional geometric structure of complex molecules) as an essential part of organic chemistry.

Nationality: British

Education: Ph.D. in organic chemistry, Imperial College (London), 1942; D.Sc., University of London, 1949

Occupation: Professor of Chemistry at Imperial College (London), Harvard University, University of London, University of Glasgow (Scotland), etc.


1. “God is Truth. There is no incompatibility between science and religion. Both are seeking the same truth. Science shows that God exists.” (Barton, as cited in Margenau and Varghese 1997, 144).

2. “The observations and experiments of science are so wonderful that the truth that they establish can surely be accepted as another manifestation of God. God shows himself by allowing man to establish truth.” (Barton, as cited in Margenau and Varghese 1997, 145).

3. To the question, “Many prominent scientists - including Darwin, Einstein, and Planck - have considered the concept of God very seriously. What are your thoughts on the concept of God and on the existence of God?” Sir Derek Barton gave the following answer:

“As I have already stated, God is Truth. But does God really have anything to do with man? Certainly I cannot believe that God accepts only one religion, or one sect, as the only group authorized to speak for man. I would believe that God accepts all, even those who pretend not to believe. Morality and religion interact and much beneficial human behavior results from this interaction.” (Barton, as cited in Margenau and Varghese 1997, 147).

4. “Our universe is infinitely large and infinitely small. It is infinite in time past and in future time. We can never understand infinity. It is the ultimate truth, which is God.” (Barton, as cited in Margenau and Varghese 1997, 144).

5. “So religion is finally about the relationship of the individual and God. Can one speak to God? Prayers to God to advance one’s personal welfare, at the expense of the less righteous, are surely not welcome. Prayers to God to let one discover truth might be acceptable. Certainly, it is remarkable how we have been able to understand so much in our environment. God permits man to make observations and experiments which can be interpreted by logical thinking.” (Barton, as cited in Margenau and Varghese 1997, 147).

Jan 17 '12 · Tags: god, nobel laureate, sir derek barton
Author/Compiler: Tihomir Dimitrov (http://nobelists.net; also see http://scigod.com/index.php/sgj/issue/view/3)


Nobel Prize: Joseph E. Murray (born 1919) was granted the 1990 Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology for work that “proved to a doubting world that it was possible to transplant organs to save the lives of dying patients.” Murray was the first to perform kidney transplants. He is one of the founders of modern transplantology.

Nationality: American

Education: M.D., Harvard University, 1943

Occupation: Professor of Surgery at Harvard Medical School; chief plastic surgeon at Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Boston


1. In an interview for the National Catholic Register (December 1-7, 1996), Prof. Joseph Murray asserts that there is no conflict between religion and science:

“Is the Church inimical to science? Growing up as a Catholic and a scientist – I don’t see it. One truth is revealed truth, the other is scientific truth. If you really believe that creation is good, there can be no harm in studying science. The more we learn about creation – the way it emerged – it just adds to the glory of God. Personally, I’ve never seen a conflict.” (Murray, as cited in Meyer 1996).

2. “We’re just working with the tools God gave us. There’s no reason that science and religion have to operate in an adversarial relationship. Both come from the same source, the only source of truth – the Creator.” (Murray, as cited in Meyer 1996).

3. In his article “Murray: Surgeon with soul” (Harvard University Gazette, 4 October 2001), John Lenger wrote:

“To Murray, a doctor’s responsibility is to treat each patient as not just a set of symptoms, but as someone with a spirit that can be helped through medical procedures. The title of his autobiography, Surgery of the Soul (Boston Medical Library, 2001), stems from Murray’s spiritually based approach to medicine. Though he has in the past hesitated to talk publicly about his faith, for fear of being lumped in with the televangelist crowd, Murray is deeply religious. ‘Work is a prayer,’ he said, ‘and I start off every morning dedicating it to our Creator. Every day is a prayer – I feel that, and I feel that very strongly.’ ” (Murray, as cited in Lenger 2001).

4. “I think the important thing to realize is how little we know about anything – how flowers unfold, how butterflies migrate. We have to avoid the arrogance of persons on either side of the science-religion divide who feel that they have all the answers. We have to try to use our intellect with humility.” (Murray, as cited in Meyer 1996).

5. “There are a lot of moral problems that my Jesuit training has helped me with. In my own conscience, I’ve never had a conflict between my religious upbringing and my science.” (Murray, as cited in Meyer 1996).

Jan 15 '12 · Tags: nobel laureate, religion, science
Author: Laozi (老子); translated by James Legge

Now arms, however beautiful, are instruments of evil omen, hateful, it may be said, to all creatures. Therefore they who have the Tao do not like to employ them.

第三十一章 夫佳兵者,不祥之器,物或惡之,故有道者不處。君子居則貴左,用兵則 貴右。兵者不祥之器,非君子之器,不得已而用之,恬淡為上。勝而不美 ,而美之者,是樂殺人。夫樂殺人者,則不可得志于天下矣。吉事尚左, 凶事尚右。偏將軍居左,上將軍居右,言以喪禮處之。殺人之眾,以悲哀 泣之,戰勝以喪禮處之。

Chapter 31 1. Now arms, however beautiful, are instruments of evil omen, hateful, it may be said, to all creatures. Therefore they who have the Tao do not like to employ them. 2. The superior man ordinarily considers the left hand the most honourable place, but in time of war the right hand. Those sharp weapons are instruments of evil omen, and not the instruments of the superior man;—he uses them only on the compulsion of necessity. Calm and repose are what he prizes; victory (by force of arms) is to him undesirable. To consider this desirable would be to delight in the slaughter of men; and he who delights in the slaughter of men cannot get his will in the kingdom. 3. On occasions of festivity to be on the left hand is the prized position; on occasions of mourning, the right hand. The second in command of the army has his place on the left; the general commanding in chief has his on the right;—his place, that is, is assigned to him as in the rites of mourning. He who has killed multitudes of men should weep for them with the bitterest grief; and the victor in battle has his place (rightly) according to those rites.

第三十二章 道常無名,朴雖小,天下莫能臣。侯王若能守之,萬物將自賓。天地相合 ,以降甘露,民莫之令而自均。始制有名,名亦既有,夫亦將知止,知止 可以不殆。譬道之在天下,猶川谷之于江海。

Chapter 32 1. The Tao, considered as unchanging, has no name. 2. Though in its primordial simplicity it may be small, the whole world dares not deal with (one embodying) it as a minister. If a feudal prince or the king could guard and hold it, all would spontaneously submit themselves to him. 3. Heaven and Earth (under its guidance) unite together and send down the sweet dew, which, without the directions of men, reaches equally everywhere as of its own accord. 4. As soon as it proceeds to action, it has a name. When it once has that name, (men) can know to rest in it. When they know to rest in it, they can be free from all risk of failure and error. 5. The relation of the Tao to all the world is like that of the great rivers and seas to the streams from the valleys.

第三十三章 知人者智,自知者明。勝人者有力,自勝者強。知足者富。強行者有志。 不失其所者久。死而不亡者壽。

Chapter 33 1. He who knows other men is discerning; he who knows himself is intelligent. He who overcomes others is strong; he who overcomes himself is mighty. He who is satisfied with his lot is rich; he who goes on acting with energy has a (firm) will. 2. He who does not fail in the requirements of his position, continues long; he who dies and yet does not perish, has longevity.

第三十四章 大道氾兮,其可左右。萬物恃之以生而不辭,功成不名有,衣養萬物而不 為主。常無欲,可名于小﹔萬物歸焉而不為主,可名為大。以其終不自為 大,故能成其大。

Chapter 34 1. All-pervading is the Great Tao! It may be found on the left hand and on the right. 2. All things depend on it for their production, which it gives to them, not one refusing obedience to it. When its work is accomplished, it does not claim the name of having done it. It clothes all things as with a garment, and makes no assumption of being their lord;—it may be named in the smallest things. All things return (to their root and disappear), and do not know that it is it which presides over their doing so;—it may be named in the greatest things. 3. Hence the sage is able (in the same way) to accomplish his great achievements. It is through his not making himself great that he can accomplish them.

第三十五章 執大象,天下往。往而不害,安平太。樂與餌,過客止。道之出口,淡乎 其無味。視之不足見,聽之不足聞,用之不足既。

Chapter 35 1. To him who holds in his hands the Great Image (of the invisible Tao), the whole world repairs. Men resort to him, and receive no hurt, but (find) rest, peace, and the feeling of ease. 2. Music and dainties will make the passing guest stop (for a time). But though the Tao as it comes from the mouth, seems insipid and has no flavour, though it seems not worth being looked at or listened to, the use of it is inexhaustible.

Jan 14 '12 · Tags: dao de jing, laozi, 老子
Author: Confucius (孔夫子); translated by James Legge

1. 子謂公冶長,「可妻也。雖在縲絏之中,非其罪也。」以其子妻之。

Of Kung-yeh Ch'ang the Master said, A girl might be wedded to him. Though he has been in fetters that was not his crime. He gave him his daughter to wed.

2. 子謂南容,「邦有道不廢,邦無道免於刑戮。」以其兄之子妻之。

Of Nan Jung the Master said, When the land keeps the Way he will not be neglected; and if the land loses the Way he will escape punishment and death. He gave him his brother's daughter to wed.

3. 子謂子賤,「君子哉若人!魯無君子者,斯焉取斯?」

Of Tzu-chien the Master said, What a gentleman he is! But if there were no gentlemen in Lu, where could he have picked it up?

4. 子貢問曰:「賜也何如?」子曰:「女器也。」曰:「何器也?」曰:「瑚璉也。」

Tzu-kung asked, And what of me? Thou art a vessel, said the Master. What kind of vessel? A rich temple vessel.

5. 或曰:「雍也仁而不佞。」子曰:「焉用佞?御人以口給,屢憎於人。不知其仁,焉用 佞?」

One said, Yung has love, but he is not glib. The Master said, What is the good of being glib? Fighting men with tongue-craft mostly makes men hate you. Whether love be his I do not know, but what is the good of being glib?

6. 子使漆雕開仕。對曰:「吾斯之未能信。」子說。

The Master moved Ch'i-tiao K'ai to take office. He answered, For this I want confidence. The Master was pleased.

7. 子曰:「道不行,乘桴浮於海。從我者,其由與?」子路聞之喜。子曰:「由也好勇過 我,無所取材。」

The Master said, Forsaken is the Way! I must take ship and stem the seas; and Yu shall go with me. When Tzu-lu heard this he was glad. The Master said, Yu loves daring more than I do, but he is at a loss how to take things.

8. 孟武伯問:「子路仁乎?」子曰:「不知也。」又問。子曰:「由也,千乘之國,可使 治其賦也,不知其仁也。」「求也何如?」子曰:「求也,千室之邑,百乘之家,可使為之宰也,不知其仁也。」「赤也何如?」子曰:「赤也,束帶立於朝,可使與賓客言也,不知其仁也。」

Meng Wu asked whether Tzu-lu had love. I do not know, said the Master. He asked again. A land of a thousand chariots might give Yu charge of its levies; but whether love be his I do not know. And how about Ch'iu? A town of a thousand households, a clan of an hundred chariots might make Ch'iu governor; but whether love be his I do not know. And how about Ch'ih? Standing in the court, girt with his sash, Ch'ih might entertain the guests; but whether love be his I do not know.

9. 子謂子貢曰:「女與回也,孰愈?」對曰:「賜也,何敢望回?回也,聞一以知十,賜 也聞一知二。」子曰:「弗如也,吾與女,弗如也。」

The Master said to Tzu-kung, Which is the better man, thou or Hui? He answered, How dare I look as high as Hui? When Hui hears one thing, he understands ten; when I hear one thing I understand two. The Master said, Thou art not his like. Neither art thou his like, nor am I.

10. 宰予晝寢。子曰:「朽木不可雕也,糞土之牆不可杇也。於予與何誅?」子曰:「始 吾於人也,聽其言而信其行;今吾於人也,聽其言而觀其行。於予與改是。」

Tsai Yü slept in the daytime. The Master said, Rotten wood cannot be carved, nor are dung walls plastered. Why chide with Yü? The Master said, When I first met men I listened to their words and took their deeds on trust. When I meet them now, I listen to their words and watch their deeds. I righted this on Yü.

11. 子曰:「吾未見剛者。」或對曰:「申棖。」子曰:「棖也慾,焉得剛?」

The Master said, I have met no firm man. One answered, Shen Ch'ang. The Master said, Ch'ang is passionate; how can he be firm?

12. 子貢曰:「我不欲人之加諸我也,吾亦欲無加諸人。」子曰:「賜也,非爾所及 也。」

Tzu-kung said, What I do not wish done to me, I likewise wish not to do to others. The Master said, That is still beyond thee, Tz'u.

13. 子貢曰:「夫子之文章,可得而聞也;夫子之言性與天道,不可得而聞也。」

Tzu-kung said, To hear the Master on his art and precepts is granted us; but to hear him on man's nature and the Way of Heaven is not.

14. 子路有聞,未之能行,唯恐有聞。

Until Tzu-lu could do what he had heard, his only fear was to hear more.

15. 子貢問曰:「孔文子何以謂之文也?」子曰:「敏而好學,不恥下問,是以謂之文 也。」

Tzu-kung asked, Why was K'ung-wen called cultured? The Master said, He was quick and loved learning; he was not ashamed to ask those beneath him: that is why he was called cultured.

16. 子謂子產有君子之道四焉:其行己也恭,其事上也敬,其養民也惠,其使民也義。

The Master said, Of the ways of a gentleman Tzu-ch'an had four. His life was modest; he honoured those that he served. He was kind in feeding the people, and he was just in his calls upon them.

17. 子曰:「晏平仲善與人交,久而敬之。」

The Master said, Yen P'ing was a good friend. The longer he knew you, the more attentive he grew.

18. 子曰:「藏文仲居蔡,山節藻梲,何如其知也?」

The Master said, Tsang Wen lodged his tortoise with hills on the pillars and reeds on the uprights: was this his wisdom?

19. 子張問曰:「令尹子文三仕為令尹,無喜色;三已之,無慍色。舊令尹之政,必以告 新令尹。何如?」子曰:「忠矣。」曰:「仁矣乎?」曰:「未知,焉得仁!」「崔子弒齊君,陳文子有馬十乘,棄而違之。至於他邦,則曰,『猶吾大夫崔子也。』違之,之一邦,則又曰:『猶吾大夫崔子也。』違之。何如?」子曰:「清矣。」曰:「仁矣乎?」子曰:「未知,焉得仁?」

Tzu-chang said, The chief minister, Tzu-wen, was thrice made minister without showing gladness, thrice he left office with unmoved looks. He always told the new ministers how the old ones had governed: how was that? He was faithful, said the Master. But was it love? I do not know, said the Master: how should this amount to love? When Ts'ui murdered the lord of Ch'i, Ch'en Wen threw up ten teams of horses and left the land. On coming to another kingdom he said, 'Like my lord Ts'ui,' and left it. On coming to a second kingdom he said again, 'Like my lord Ts'ui,' and left it: how was that? He was clean, said the Master. But was it love? I do not know, said the Master: how should this amount to love?

20. 季文子三思而後行。子聞之,曰:「再斯可矣。」

Chi Wen thought thrice before acting. On hearing this the Master said, Twice is enough.

21. 子曰:「甯武子,邦有道則知,邦無道則愚。其知可及也,其愚不可及也。」

The Master said, Whilst the land kept the Way Ning Wu showed wisdom; when his land lost the Way he grew simple. His wisdom we may come up to; such simplicity is beyond us.

22. 子在陳曰:「歸與!歸與!吾黨之小子狂簡,斐然成章,不知所以裁之。」

When he was in Ch'en the Master said, Home, I must go home! Zealous, or rash, or finished scholars, my young sons at home do not know what pruning they still need!

23. 子曰:「伯夷叔齊,不念舊惡,怨是用希。」

The Master said, Because Po-yi and Shu-ch'i never remembered old wickedness they made few enemies.

24. 子曰:「孰謂微生高直?或乞醯焉,乞諸其鄰而與之。」

The Master said, Who can call Wei-sheng Kao straight? A man begged him for vinegar: he begged it of a neighbour, and gave it.

25. 子曰:「巧言、令色、足恭,左丘明恥之,丘亦恥之。匿怨而友其人,左丘明恥之, 丘亦恥之。」

The Master said, Smooth words, fawning looks, and overdone humility, Tso Ch'iu-ming thought shameful, and so do I. He thought it shameful to hide ill-will and ape friendship, and so do I.

26. 顏淵、季路侍。子曰:「盍各言爾志?」子路曰:「願車馬、衣輕裘,與朋友共,敝 之而無憾。」顏淵曰:「願無伐善,無施勞。」子路曰:「願聞子之志。」子曰:「老者安之,朋友信之,少者懷之。」

As Yen Yüan and Chi-lu were sitting with him, the Master said, Why not each of you tell me thy wishes? Tzu-lu said, I should like carriages and horses, and clothes of light fur to share with my friends, and, if they spoiled them, not to get angry. Yen Yüan said, I should like to make no boast of talent or show or merit. Tzu-lu said, We should like to hear your wishes, Sir. The Master said, To give the old folk peace, to be true to friends, and to have a heart for the young.

27. 子曰:「已矣乎!吾未見能見其過,而內自訟者也。」

The Master said, It is finished! I have met no one that can see his own faults and arraign himself within.

28. 子曰:「十室之邑,必有忠信如丘者焉,不如丘之好學也。」

The Master said, In a hamlet of ten houses there must be men that are as faithful and true men as I, but they do not love learning as I do.

Jan 14 '12 · Tags: confucian analects, 孔夫子, 論語
Author/Compiler: Tihomir Dimitrov (http://nobelists.net; also see http://scigod.com/index.php/sgj/issue/view/3)


Nobel Prize: Alexis Carrel (1873–1944) won the 1912 Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology “for his work on vascular suturing and the transplantation of blood-vessels and organs.” Carrel single-handedly created the method for transplanting organs from one human body to the other. He is the founder of modern transplantology.

Nationality: French; later American resident

Education: M.D., University of Lyons, France, 1900

Occupation: Researcher at the University of Chicago and the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, NY; Professor at the University of Lyons, France


1. In his book Reflections on Life (New York: Hawthorn Books, 1952) Alexis Carrel wrote:

“Jesus knows our world. He does not disdain us like the God of Aristotle. We can speak to Him and He answers us. Although He is a person like ourselves, He is God and transcends all things.” (Carrel 1952, Chap. 6, Part 7).

2. “Why are we here? Where do we come from? What are we? Is it absurd to believe in the survival of the soul?

Only religion proposes a complete solution to the human problem. Christianity, above all has given a clear-cut answer to the demands of the human soul.” (Carrel 1952, Chap. 6, Part 5).

3. “The need of God expresses itself in prayer. Prayer is a cry of distress; a demand for help; a hymn of love.

Prayer gives us strength to bear cares and anxieties, to hope when there is no logical motive for hope, to remain steadfast in the midst of catastrophes.” (Carrel 1952, Chap. 6, Part 7).

4. In Reflections on Life, Prof. Carrel expressed his attitude towards Christianity thus:

“We are loved by an immaterial and all-powerful Being. This Being is accessible to our prayers. We must love Him above all creatures. And we ourselves must also love one another.

A new era had begun. The only cement strong enough to bind men together had been found.

Nevertheless, humanity chose to ignore the importance of this new principle in the organization of its collective life. It is far from having understood that only mutual love could save it from division, ruin and chaos. Nor has it realized that no scientific discovery was so fraught with significance as the revelation of the law of love by Jesus the Crucified. For this law is, in fact, that of the survival of human societies.” (Carrel 1952, Chap. 3, Part 6).

5. “Christianity offers men the very highest of moralities. It presents to them a God who can be adored because He is within our reach and Whom we ought to love.” (Carrel 1952, Chap. 9, Part 4).

6. “I want to be like smoke in the wind at God’s disposal.” (Carrel, as cited in Newton 1989).

7. “It is, of course, a waste of time to talk to children of theology and duty. But we should follow Kant’s advice and present God to them very early indeed as an invisible father who watches over them and to whom they can address prayers. The true mode of honoring God consists in fulfilling His will.” (Carrel 1952, Chap. 8, Part 3).

8. “The words of Jesus penetrate deeply into the reality of life. They ignore philosophy; they break all the conventions; they are so astonishing, that, even to this day, we find them hard to understand.

To him who obeys the law of the jungle, the command to love his neighbor as himself seems absurd.” (Carrel 1952, Chap. 6, Part 7 “The Need of God”).

9. “Nevertheless, Jesus knows our world. Wherever we are at any moment of day or night, Jesus is at our disposition. We can reach Him simply by turning toward Him our desire and our love. It is an easily observable fact that, even in the society created by science and technology, this need of God has persisted.” (Carrel 1952, Chap. 6, Part 7 “The Need of God”).

10. “Millikan, Eddington, and Jeans believe, like Newton, that the cosmos is the product of a Creative Intelligence.” (Carrel 1952, Chap. 6, Part 6).

11. “For modern man, the only rule of conduct is his own good pleasure. Everyone is enclosed in his own egoism like the crab in its shell and, again like the crab, seeks to devour his neighbor.” (Carrel 1952, Chap. 1, Part 1).

12. “It is sheer pride to believe oneself capable of correcting nature, for nature is the work of God. To command nature, we must obey her.” (Carrel 1952, Chap. 2, Part 6).

13. “Our civilization has, in truth, forgotten that it is born of the blood of Christ; it has also forgotten God.

But it still understands the beauty of the Gospel narratives and of the Sermon on the Mount. It is still moved by those words of pity and love which bring peace, and sometimes even joy, to the broken, the afflicted, the sick and the dying.” (Carrel 1952, Chap. 3, Part 6).

14. “Christian morality is incomparably more powerful than lay morality. Thus man will never enthusiastically obey the laws of rational conduct unless he considers the laws of life as the commands of a personal God.

Unfortunately, most modern men are incapable of acting for the love of their neighbors, of their country or of God, for the only thing they love is themselves.” (Carrel 1952, Chap. 6, Part 2).

See also Alexis Carrel’s books:

- Prayer, New York, Morehouse-Gorham, 1948

- The Voyage to Lourdes, New York, Harper, 1950

- Man, the Unknown, New York, Harper, 1935

Jan 12 '12 · Tags: god, nobel laureate, alexis carrel
Author/Compiler: Tihomir Dimitrov (http://nobelists.net; also see http://scigod.com/index.php/sgj/issue/view/3)


Nobel Prize: Joseph H. Taylor, Jr. (born 1941) received the 1993 Nobel Prize in Physics for the discovery of the first known binary pulsar, and for his work, which supported the Big Bang theory of the creation of the Universe.

Nationality: American

Education: Ph.D. in astronomy, Harvard University, 1968

Occupation: Professor of physics at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst (1969-1981) and Princeton University (1986 – present)


1. “A scientific discovery is also a religious discovery. There is no conflict between science and religion. Our knowledge of God is made larger with every discovery we make about the world.” (Taylor, as cited in Brown 2002).

2. To the question, “Would you care to tell me about your relationship to religion?” Prof. Taylor replied:

“We are active in the Religious Society of Friends, that is, the Quakers and it's been an important part of our lives, more so for my wife and me than for our children. My wife and I spend time with our faith group; it’s a way for us to make connections with our philosophical views on life, why we are on the Earth, and what we can do for others.

The Quakers are a group of Christians who believe that there can be direct communication between an individual and the Spirit, which we may call God. By contemplation and deep inward looking one can effectively commune with this Spirit and to learn things about oneself and about the way one should conduct oneself on Earth.

The group believes that war is not the way to settle differences and that peaceful ways are more likely to be lasting. Quakers have refused fighting wars but have been willing to serve their nations in other capacities.

We believe that there is something of God in every person and therefore human life is sacrosanct and one needs to look for the depth of spiritual presence in others, even in others with whom you disagree.” (Taylor, as cited in Candid Science IV: Conversations with Famous Physicists by Istvan Hargittai, London, Imperial College Press, 2004, 665-666).

Jan 11 '12 · Tags: nobel laureate, joseph h. taylor, jr.
Author: Laozi (老子); translated by James Legge

第二十六章 重為輕根,靜為躁君。是以君子終日行不離輜重。雖有榮觀,燕處超然。 奈何萬乘之主,而以身輕天下?輕則失根,躁則失君。

Chapter 26 1. Gravity is the root of lightness; stillness, the ruler of movement. 2. Therefore a wise prince, marching the whole day, does not go far from his baggage waggons. Although he may have brilliant prospects to look at, he quietly remains (in his proper place), indifferent to them. How should the lord of a myriad chariots carry himself lightly before the kingdom? If he do act lightly, he has lost his root (of gravity); if he proceed to active movement, he will lose his throne.

第二十七章 善行,無轍跡,善言,無瑕謫﹔善數,不用籌策﹔善閉,無關楗而不可開 ,善結,無繩約而不可解。是以聖人常善救人,故無棄人﹔常善救物,故 無棄物。是謂襲明。故善人者,不善人之師﹔不善人者,善人之資。不貴 其師,不愛其資,雖智大迷,是謂要妙。

Chapter 27 1. The skilful traveller leaves no traces of his wheels or footsteps; the skilful speaker says nothing that can be found fault with or blamed; the skilful reckoner uses no tallies; the skilful closer needs no bolts or bars, while to open what he has shut will be impossible; the skilful binder uses no strings or knots, while to unloose what he has bound will be impossible. In the same way the sage is always skilful at saving men, and so he does not cast away any man; he is always skilful at saving things, and so he does not cast away anything. This is called 'Hiding the light of his procedure.' 2. Therefore the man of skill is a master (to be looked up to) by him who has not the skill; and he who has not the skill is the helper of (the reputation of) him who has the skill. If the one did not honour his master, and the other did not rejoice in his helper, an (observer), though intelligent, might greatly err about them. This is called 'The utmost degree of mystery.'

第二十八章 知其雄,守其雌,為天下谿。為天下谿,常德不離,復歸于嬰兒。知其白 ,守其黑,為天下式,常德不忒,復歸于無極。知其榮,守其辱,為天下 谷。為天下谷,常德乃足,復歸于朴。為天下式。朴散則為器,聖人用之 ,則為官長,故大制不割。

Chapter 28 1. Who knows his manhood's strength, Yet still his female feebleness maintains; As to one channel flow the many drains, All come to him, yea, all beneath the sky. Thus he the constant excellence retains; The simple child again, free from all stains.

Who knows how white attracts, Yet always keeps himself within black's shade, The pattern of humility displayed, Displayed in view of all beneath the sky; He in the unchanging excellence arrayed, Endless return to man's first state has made.

Who knows how glory shines, Yet loves disgrace, nor e'er for it is pale; Behold his presence in a spacious vale, To which men come from all beneath the sky. The unchanging excellence completes its tale; The simple infant man in him we hail.

2. The unwrought material, when divided and distributed, forms vessels. The sage, when employed, becomes the Head of all the Officers (of government); and in his greatest regulations he employs no violent measures.

第二十九章 將欲取天下而為之,吾見其不得已。天下神器,不可為也,不可執也。為 者敗之,執者失之。故物或行或隨,或噓或吹,或強或羸,或載或隳,是 以聖人去甚,去奢,去泰。

Chapter 29 1. If any one should wish to get the kingdom for himself, and to effect this by what he does, I see that he will not succeed. The kingdom is a spirit-like thing, and cannot be got by active doing. He who would so win it destroys it; he who would hold it in his grasp loses it.

2. The course and nature of things is such that What was in front is now behind; What warmed anon we freezing find. Strength is of weakness oft the spoil; The store in ruins mocks our toil. Hence the sage puts away excessive effort, extravagance, and easy indulgence.

第三十章 以道佐人主者,不以兵強天下。其事好還。師之所處,荊棘生焉。大軍之 后,必有凶年。善者果而已,不敢以取強。果而勿矜,果而勿伐,果而勿 驕。果而不得已,果而勿強。物壯則老,是謂不道,不道早已。

Chapter 30 1. He who would assist a lord of men in harmony with the Tao will not assert his mastery in the kingdom by force of arms. Such a course is sure to meet with its proper return. 2. Wherever a host is stationed, briars and thorns spring up. In the sequence of great armies there are sure to be bad years. 3. A skilful (commander) strikes a decisive blow, and stops. He does not dare (by continuing his operations) to assert and complete his mastery. He will strike the blow, but will be on his guard against being vain or boastful or arrogant in consequence of it. He strikes it as a matter of necessity; he strikes it, but not from a wish for mastery. 4. When things have attained their strong maturity they become old. This may be said to be not in accordance with the Tao: and what is not in accordance with it soon comes to an end.

Jan 10 '12 · Tags: dao de jing, laozi, 老子
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